Introduction to Public Relations & Advertising

Public Relations
Inas A.hamid
Founding Fathers of PR
Edward Bernays
Ivy Lee
Ivy Lee
 1904
: Opened his PR firm.
 1906 : initiated a policy of “the public
should be informed", while engaged in
defining the coalmine owners against their
strike workforce.
 Introduced the facility visit for reporters
to investigate and report freely on what
they found.
Edward Bernays
1918 : His uncle's book –Freud - “A general
introduction to psychoanalysis” , convinced him
that people may be persuaded not only to
support a war effort , but also to adopt new
ways of thinking and to adapt their habits
and opinions.
 1919 : He went to New York as PR counsel ,a
term he devised in substitution for propaganda.
 He developed and delivered the first course
in PR at New York university.
 1923 : he published the first text on PR
“crystallizing public opinion”.
What is PR
It is a serious of complex activities that include the following:
Sustained effort.
Measurement and evaluation of attitudes .
The use of various techniques to influence those attitudes.
Research is an essential element.
Using communication to interact effectively with publics.
Mutual understanding between the organization and its publics.
Responsible behavior that is in the public interest as well as that
of the organization.
Predicting the future and be ready for it.
Issues management : scanning environmental issues , deciding
their future course , trying to influence their outcomes.
Placing reputation at the centre of PR practice.
Building the desired image of the corporate.
Communicating with stakeholders more than publics.
 So
, PR department is a unit in a firm that
manage publicity and other
communications with every group that is in
contact with the company.
Identifying Stakeholders
A person or group that has a vested interest in
the organization's well-being , such as :
Investors and shareholders who need profits.
Banks that are waiting for loan repayments.
Employees need their wages.
Local community.
Special interest group.
PR functions
 Identifying
internal and external
 Assess the corporate reputation.
 Audit corporate social responsibility.
 Create positive image-building activities.
 Prevent or reduce image damage.
PR process
PR uses a four-step process ,(which is really three
steps process):
Research: to collect information.
 Planning : It may be short – or long-term.
 Planning has many objectives:
• Modifying the organization.
• Influencing public opinion.
 Communication: by using many tools: news ,
press release , publications , news
conference , special events,……,to present
yourself in the best way , and neutralizing
 Evaluation : measuring the results.
PR Culture
PR culture describes an organizational environment
(objectives , stakeholders , current culture , and what
should ) in which every participant understand the
purpose of PR , mainly the creation of favorable
This can be translated into the following:
Acting towards outsiders as an ambassador.
Mutual understanding.
Speak up for the organization and express its opinions and
Champion its cause.
Make PR decisions reflect the values of the organization.
What is not PR?
PR is not Advertising.
 PR
Achieving sales not a
principle purpose , but
its task to :
Create better
Gain credit
Encourage loyalty
Foster discussion
Crisis management.
 Advertising
Paid and persuasive
communication ,
designed to achieve
Depends on true
Using intellectual and
emotional appeals.
Communicate with
convincing argument
and presentation.
Announcing its
Depends on incomplete
distorted , or half-true
 One-way
depends on telling
rather than listening.
 Seeking arousing
 Mostly , don't recognize
its sources.
 In your opinion , what is the difference between PR
culture of Cola industry from that of a hospital ?
 Some people describe PR concept as being equal to
communication concept, correct.
 Name the major internal and external stakeholders
you would have to deal with if you were the public
relations vice president for MTI university.
 Name the major internal stakeholders in a hospital
and describe their interest in the hospital.
 Do you think PR is basically helpful or harmful to
Critical thinking exercise
 When Starbucks opened its first
coffee shop inside a public library . 10
percent of all proceeds from coffee
sold there went to support the
operation of the library. Do you think
a public library should allow a forprofit organization such as Starbucks
to sell product inside the building? Is
this a conflict of interest ?
 Categories
 Intro to PR