PREMED 1. OKPARA JENNIFER. APOPTOSIS. It is a natural process of self destruction in certain cells such as epithelial cells and erythrocytes, that are genetically programmed to have a limited life span or are damaged. Apoptosis can be induced either by a stimulus, such as irradiation or toxic drugs or by removal of a repressor agent. The cells disintegrate into membrane-bound particles that are then eliminated by phagocytosis.Also called programmed cell death. 1. The condensing of the cell nucleus and breaking it down into pieces. 2. The condensing and fragmenting of cytoplasm into membane bound aptotic bodies 3. The breaking of chromosomes into fragments containing multiple number of nucleosomes. 1. It has a role in biological processes including: embryogenesis, metamorphosis and tissue atrophy. 2. It regulates the total number of cells. 3.]It defends and removes dangerous cells like tumorcells. 4. It also helps to remove virally infected cells or immune cells that recognize self which could lead to auto immune diseases. Extracellular: 1. A hormone such as throxine which causes apoptosis in tadpole tails. 2. Lack of a survival gland (which inhibits apoptosis) such as a growth factor. 3. A cell, that is cell contact from an adjacent cell. Intracellular: 1.Ionizing radiation. 2. Virus infection. 3.Oxidative damage 1. Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimers. 2.Auto immune disease. 3. Cancer. 4.Viral diseases.