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It is a natural process of self destruction in certain
cells such as epithelial cells and erythrocytes, that are
genetically programmed to have a limited life span or
are damaged. Apoptosis can be induced either by a
stimulus, such as irradiation or toxic drugs or by
removal of a repressor agent. The cells disintegrate
into membrane-bound particles that are then
eliminated by phagocytosis.Also called programmed
cell death.
1. The condensing of the cell nucleus and breaking it
down into pieces.
2. The condensing and fragmenting of cytoplasm into
membane bound aptotic bodies
3. The breaking of chromosomes into fragments
containing multiple number of nucleosomes.
1. It has a role in biological processes including:
embryogenesis, metamorphosis and tissue atrophy.
2. It regulates the total number of cells.
3.]It defends and removes dangerous cells like
4. It also helps to remove virally infected cells or
immune cells that recognize self which could lead to
auto immune diseases.
1. A hormone such as throxine which causes apoptosis
in tadpole tails.
2. Lack of a survival gland (which inhibits apoptosis)
such as a growth factor.
3. A cell, that is cell contact from an adjacent cell.
1.Ionizing radiation.
2. Virus infection.
3.Oxidative damage
1. Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimers.
2.Auto immune disease.
3. Cancer.
4.Viral diseases.