Organic Chemistry Laboratory Copyright 2002 © Mark Brandt, Ph.D. Safety • Safety in the lab – read the sheet in your drawer, sign one copy, and keep the other. • Wear proper attire: – – – – Always wear goggles Wear shirt with sleeves or lab coat Wear long pants, closed-toe shoes, and socks. Lab coats and/or scrubs are recommended (and may be required if you are wearing shorts). – Wear disposable gloves (latex and nitrile gloves are available). • • • • • • Keep your hands clean, and avoid touching your face. No horseplay, pranks, etc. No eating, drinking, or smoking in the lab. Confine long hair. Do not work in the lab alone. Never taste or smell chemicals unless you are directed to do so. (If you do smell something, use the proper technique.) Copyright 2002 © Mark Brandt, Ph.D. Safety • Be familiar with substances that are respiratory hazards. – Diethyl ether – Hydrochloric acid • Hazardous chemicals – Organic peroxides • Aldehydes, ether (especially cyclic ethers), and olefins form peroxides. Do not evaporate to dryness, because peroxides are frequently contact explosives. – Cyanides and nitriles • Antidote – amyl nitrite • Disposal – convert to cyanate by alkaline chloridation – Solvents – Aromatic hydrocarbons – Esters of carboxylic acids Copyright 2002 © Mark Brandt, Ph.D. Safety • Know what you are working with. Read the laboratory manual and the reagent labels carefully (when in doubt, ask an instructor). • Avoid using more than necessary of any material. • Never pipet by mouth. • Never return unused materials to stock bottles. • Dispose of wastes in proper containers. • Clean up any spills promptly. (Turn off flames while doing so.) Copyright 2002 © Mark Brandt, Ph.D. Safety • Know where safety the facilities are (the fire extinguishers – ABC in front of the lab, and CO2 in the back; use ABC for chemical fires). There is a Fire blanket in the front of the room. • Do not get the Fire blanket if you are on fire. • Spills – Shower – pull the chain once to turn it on, and pull the chain again to turn the shower off. – Eye wash – use for 15 minutes (the water is cold and will not be pleasant) • First aid kit is on the wall (instructor cannot provide the materials, but feel free to get what you need yourself). • If the contamination is only on your hands and/or forearms, use the sink rather than the shower. Copyright 2002 © Mark Brandt, Ph.D. First Aid • Inform instructor immediately. • Ingestion of chemicals – Drink large amounts of water. Do not induce vomiting unless instructed to do so. • Burns – 1st degree burns – rinse with cold water – 2nd or 3rd degree burns – rinse with cold water and go to student health – Chemical burns – Rinse immediately with lots of water (even if it doesn’t hurt, because some reagents do painless damage). • Asphyxiation – remove the victim to fresh air – Artificial respiration if breathing has stopped. • Cuts and bleeding – Direct pressure if the injury is a minor cut. – Use pressure points if a major artery is cut. Copyright 2002 © Mark Brandt, Ph.D. Dealing with Bodily Fluids • • • • • • • • Inform instructor. Wear gloves Use paper towels to absorb liquid. Use bleach solution (10% bleach), alcohol, or other sterilizing agent to destroy any escaped pathogens. Clean the area with paper towels or dust pan and broom. Remove gloves (turn them inside out). Place used gloves and other materials in a bag, and tie it. Wash hands with soap and water for at least 10 seconds. Copyright 2002 © Mark Brandt, Ph.D. Working in the Laboratory • Wear gloves when working with reagents. – Latex and nitrile gloves are available. (The more expensive nitrile gloves should be used by people allergic to latex, or for reagents that dissolve latex.) • Pour using proper technique. – Hold bottle with label in the palm of the hand. (This means that drips will always be on opposite side from label.) – Remove stopper, holding it between your fingers, pour, and replace stopper. – Pour over the trays whenever possible. Copyright 2002 © Mark Brandt, Ph.D. Working in the Laboratory • Ground glass joints – Lubricate the joints with grease (use small amount, and try to avoid having the grease on the inside of the flask) • Teflon stop-cocks for separatory funnel – Loosen the nut when the funnel is not in use (the Teflon will deform if left tight). Tighten before using! – Make sure that the Teflon stopcock, end piece, o-ring, nut (in that order) are assembled correctly. • Thermometers – Insert (carefully!) in rubber adapter – grasp thermometer close to bulb and insert (if grasp thermometer in the middle, it may break, which releases toxic mercury and may result in cuts.) Copyright 2002 © Mark Brandt, Ph.D. Working in the Laboratory • Mix reagents slowly! – Always dilute more concentrated solution. Add acid to water! • Washing glassware – Use soap and water and brushes – Use Deionized water sparingly (it is expensive, because it must be brought in in trucks) – If soap and water is inadequate, use acetone. Acetone is an organic solvent, so it must be disposed of in organic waste. • Dispose of wastes properly. – – – – Organic waste should be placed in organic waste container. Halogenated wastes should be disposed of separately. Light metals should be run down sink. Acids and bases should be neutralized and disposed of in the sink. Copyright 2002 © Mark Brandt, Ph.D.