Life Warm Up 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Herba= ____________ Bi = _____________ __________ = disease, inflammation ___________ = origin, beginning What is your hypothesis for the celery lab? What is the independent variable for the celery lab? 7. What is the dependent variable for the celery lab? 8. What are some constants for the celery lab? ALL LIVING THINGS: 1. are made of cells. 2. are based on a universal genetic code (DNA) 3. obtain and use energy. 4. grow and develop. 5. reproduce. 6. respond to their environment. 7. adapt to their environment. Organic vs. Inorganic All living things contain carbon • Organic: contains carbon (C), produced or taken from something living – Humans – Plants – Insects • Inorganic: not from living, made from rocks and minerals. One exception-Carbon Dioxide (CO2) – Water – Minerals -Stone -Metal Organic Molecules Organic Molecules • In order for life to be sustained we must rely on biochemical processes. • These processes involve organic molecules – Carbohydrates – Proteins – Lipids – Nucleic acids (Organic molecules can be made up of large repeating units [polymer] or one single unit [monomer]) Polymer Monomer Many Long train of repeating units (X-X-X-X) Larger One One unit (X) Smaller Warm Up 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ___________ = head Ecto/exo= ______________ Define independent variable Define dependent variable What is the purpose of a control group? Tell which molecules are organic: H2O, C2H6O, K, CO2, CH4 7. Explain the difference between a polymer and a monomer. Carbohydrates • saccharide = [S]-[U]-[G]-[A]-[R] Monomer(Subunit) Monosaccharide Polymer- Polysaccharide Made of - carbon(C), hydrogen(H), oxygen(O) Uses/Function – Quick, short-term energy Ex- Foods - Monosaccharide: Glucose Polysaccharide: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose Breads, pastas, fruits, etc Lipids Monomer- Fatty Acid PolymerMade of - DON’T NEED TO KNOW Mostly Hydrogen and Carbon with very little Oxygen Uses/Function – Insulation, Buoyancy, Long term energy storage Ex - Triglycerides; Phospholipids; Cholesterol Foods - mayonnaise, butter, greasy & oil foods Other notes: Lipids Think: Fats & Oils •Hydrophobic = ______________ •Meaning: will not dissolve in water RECALL ROOTS: •Hydro = ____________ •Phobic = ____________ Other notes: Lipids Found in our bodies : • Cell membrane: made up of phospholipids • Structure of a phospholipid can give us an indication of its function HYDROPHILIC HEAD = _________________ HYDROPHOBIC TAIL = _________________ Nucleic Acids Monomer: Nucleotide Polymer: DNA & RNA Made of: A sugar (contains C, H, and O), a phosphate, and a nitrogen base Uses/Function: Contains Genetic Information Examples: DNA & RNA Nucleic Acids Proteins Monomer: Amino Acids Polymer: Polypeptides (Polypeptides fold into proteins) Bonding = Peptide Bond (A covalent bond between amino acids) A.A. A.A. A.A. A.A. A. A. Name: Proteins Made of: carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N) Uses/Function: Repair, Transport, Cell structure/integrity Examples: Enzymes, Insulin, Hemoglobin Foods: Eggs, Meats, Beans, Nuts Food Testing for Organic Compounds • Iodine (Lugol’s): test for starches (Polysaccharides) – Positive test: will see a color change • Biuret’s: test for proteins – Positive test: will see a color change • Benedict’s: test for sugar (Mostly monosaccharides) – Positive test: will see a color change • Brown Bag: test for lipids – Positive test: will see a translucent appearance on bag Warm Up 1. What is the polymer for carbohydrates? 2. What is the only organic compound that contains Phosphate? 3. What types of foods contain lipids? 4. Give an example of a protein. 5. How can you test to see if a food contains starch? 6. How can you test to see if a food contains protein?