CHAPTER 2: People and Places Lesson 1: Interacting with the World Objectives 1: We will Compare and Contrast relationships by comparing maps. 2: Learn to divide an area of the world into regions. 3: We will identify human responses to the environment and the effects of those responses. 4: We will learn to describe the geographic characteristics of a place. 5: we will be able to identify cultural diffusion as a result of human movement. Living in the World 1. GEOGRAPHERS; study the relationships between people and their world, the reasons that cause them to live in a certain place and how they live. ESPECIALLY: a. TOPOGRAHPHY: the surface or physical features of an area like Mountains, Rivers, Lakes, Sandy Shores, and Grassy Plains. b. CLIMATE: the general pattern of weather in an area over time, this includes: a. Precipitation: rain, snow or sleet from the sky. b. Temperature: how hot or cold. 2. All around the world TOPOGRAPHY and CLIMATE influenced where people lived. The first settlements, farms and cities developed where the CLIMATE and the TOPOGRAPHY was good for farming. EXAMPLES: Plains, Near Rivers, Flat, Moderate Temperatures, Rain, Sunny, Soil, LOVE How People Live ***Some areas are very difficult to live in, like Mountains, or Plateaus that are dry, rocky with very little rain but people live there anyway*** 1. There are three (3) responses people have to difficult environments: a. MODIFY: People can change the environment with irrigation, Terraces, Deforestation. b. ADAPT: People can change their culture; instead of farming they can become Herders. c. MOVE: If people cannot Modify or Adapt, they must MOVE to a different environment. Types of Movement ***People move to other areas for different reasons and there are three (3) main types of movement*** -1. CYCLIC MOVEMENT: this type is Temporary; like going to school, commuting for a job, it happens over and over. -2. PERIODIC MOVEMENT: This types is for a Period of time; moving to summer camp for the whole summer, going to college, or people who are nomads and herders. -3. MIGRATION: This is when people leave their homeland to live PERMANENTLY in another place. One Effect of Movement DIFFUSION: The spread of Ideas, Values, and Inventions from one Culture into another; the YO-YO, the ALPHABET. Lesson 2: Understanding a Map OBJECTIVES: -1. Interpret symbols, legends, graphic scale, and insets on a map. -2. Compare the scales of different maps ***A map is a flat representation of the earth’s surface. A map must be drawn to SCALE in order to accurately represent the area shown*** Scale: -1. SCALE: Scale is used to show the relationship between distance on a map and the actual distance on the earth. Kinds of Maps: -1. There are many kinds of maps; they show different kinds of information; for example, Population, Religions, Topography, Climate and many others. Longitude and Latitude -1. Cartographers and Geographers use an IMAGINARY GRID to locate places on a map. -2. The GRID is made up of intersecting lines of Longitude and Latitude. a. LATITUDE: Lines of Latitude or PARALLELS run EAST and WEST around the globe. They measure distance going NORTH and SOUTH of the EQUATOR. b. LONGITUDE: Lines of Longitude or MERIDIANS run NORTH and SOUTH around the globe and measure distance EAST and WEST from the PRIME MERIDIAN. Understanding Symbols -1. CARTOGRAPHERS use symbols to show information on a map. -2. LEGEND: Explains the symbols used on a map. -3. INSET: a small map that appears within a larger map that shows an area of that map in greater detail. Section 3: Putting Maps to Work OBJECTIVES: 1. Compare content and purposes of different maps. 2. Identify the positive and negative aspects of a projection. Maps For Different Purposes -1. THEMATIC MAP: These maps show information on a special theme or subject. Subway Maps, Population Maps, Rainfall Maps and anything that shows information. The Shape of the Earth -1. PROJECTIONS: An image of the ROUND EARTH on a FLAT MAP; There are several different types of PROJECTIONS. a. Mercator Projection: The Shapes of continents are fairly accurate but the sizes are Distorted. b. Peter’s Projection: The Continents are accurate compared to each other but the Shapes are Distorted. c. Goode’s Interrupted Homolosine Projection: This shows VERY LITTLE distortion in Size or Shape, BUT is SPLIT Sections making it harder to figure distance. d. Robinson Projection: The SIZES SHAPES and distances are fairly accurate, this is the MOST COMMON type of Projection. Section 4: Mapping the Past. OBJECTIVES: -1. Identify one reason for early learning about the world. -2. Give examples of the role of human choice and economic necessity in Ancient Exploration. -3. Identify the role of historians in the development of early geographic knowledge. -4. Use mapmaking to show links with the past. Exploring the World -1. Early Cultures traded with each other very often. The Traders mostly sailed to different lands to trade. However, they faced many dangers like 1. MONSOONS: These powerful winds blow from the SOUTHWEST from April to October and bring heavy rains most of the time. From November to March they blow from the Northeast and bring dry air. Learning About the World -1. Early explorers and traders made accurate maps. They measured distance on land with a a. BEMATISTEA; A stepper who counted his steps to measure distance. -2. People also wrote and recorded the geography of their land like: a. STRABO a Greek historian who wrote the 17 volume Geography describing everyplace the Greeks and Romans new about. b. PTOLEMY: a Greek Geographer and Astronomer wrote Guide to Geography including Longitude and Latitude of 8,000 places. -3. The oldest map in the World is from 2300 BCE and made of clay and was found in Iraq. -4. More accurate maps were made when technology advance: a. LODESTONE: The Chinese used a magnetized piece of iron and floated in on reeds in water so it would point north, making a COMPASS b. ASTROLABE: Used to determine Latitude; a metal disk with marking to determine the height of stars of the sun. c. GNOMON: The upright blade on a sundial that explorers used to also determine height and then distance on the earth.