Greece INTRO

1. Explain the causes & effects of the Israelites move to
2. What were some advances made by the
3. Describe the strengths of the Persians.
4. Define tyrant.
5. Define oligarchy.
6. THINKER: What is a democracy? (HINT: The U.S.
government is a democracy)
Hittite Empire – 2000BC
Assyrian Empire – 650BC
Chaldean Empire – 612 BC
Persian Empire – 539 BC
Ancient Greece
• The Greeks took over the Mediterranean region and
contributed greatly to the way we live today.
• Ancient Greece included the southern part of
Europe’s Balkan Peninsula and islands in the
Aegean Sea.
• Greece’s mountain ranges protected against
invaders but also limited communication.
• Greece is surrounded by sea, which encouraged the
Greeks to become traders, and expand their empire.
Greek Civilization
• Originated in Minoan and
Mycenaean civilizations
between 3000BC to
• Early on, they developed
legends of gods and heroes.
• Main themes throughout
Greek civilization: bravery,
honor, dignity, and the love
of beauty.
• In religion, the Greeks
worshiped gods and
Temple built for Apollo (God of
music, prophecy, archery &
medicine) – 4th Century B.C.
The Polis
• Polis, or city-state, emerged as the political unit of
Greek civilization.
• A Polis included a city & surrounding villages/fields.
• Citizens within a polis government could vote, hold
public office, own property, and speak for themselves
in court.
• In return, they were expected to defend the polis in
time of war.
• Greek women had no political or legal rights.
Greek Government
• By the 700s BC, Kings were losing their powers and
being challenged by lower classes.
• As unrest increased, tyrannies arose in the city-states.
(Tyrant: one man who seized power and ruled the
polis on his own)
• Tyrants ruled until 500BC until city-states became
• Oligarchy: rule by a few wealthy people
• Democracy: government and rule by the citizens
Greek City-States
• The two major city-states of ancient Greece were Sparta and
• Sparta
– Located in the Peloponnesus peninsula
– Warlike society, used its army for control
• Athens
– Located on the Attica peninsula
– Freer society known for artistic/intellectual achievements
– Created a constitution, or plan of government, that stated
all men were equal regardless of social class
The Persian Wars
This will be our focus next week,
so stay tuned……
• Persia and Greece
were enemies that
fought for control of
trade/travel routes.
• Between 490-480B.C.,
the rivals go to war
three times.
• 7,000 Greeks
vs. 100,000 Persians
The Peloponnesian War
• War between Sparta and Athens that lasted
from 431BC to 404BC.
• Sparta allied with the Persians
• A plague struck Athens and killed 1/3 of their
• Persian-financed Spartan navy destroyed
Athens fleet.
• Athenians surrendered
• How was the government in Ancient Greece set
• What is the difference between Sparta and
• What is a Tyrant? Oligarchy?
• What are the Persian Wars?
• What are the Peloponnesian Wars?
Engineering an Empire
• Citizens of ancient Greece constructed many temples,
statues, and buildings, but how did they do it?
• In this video, you are going to learn about the history
of the Greek city-states and the construction of these
magnificent structures!
• As you watch the video, answer the 15 questions on
the worksheet.
• Be ready to discuss!