BELLWORK 1. Explain the causes & effects of the Israelites move to Egypt. 2. What were some advances made by the Chaldeans? 3. Describe the strengths of the Persians. 4. Define tyrant. 5. Define oligarchy. 6. THINKER: What is a democracy? (HINT: The U.S. government is a democracy) Hittite Empire – 2000BC Assyrian Empire – 650BC Chaldean Empire – 612 BC Persian Empire – 539 BC Ancient Greece • The Greeks took over the Mediterranean region and contributed greatly to the way we live today. • Ancient Greece included the southern part of Europe’s Balkan Peninsula and islands in the Aegean Sea. • Greece’s mountain ranges protected against invaders but also limited communication. • Greece is surrounded by sea, which encouraged the Greeks to become traders, and expand their empire. Greek Civilization • Originated in Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations between 3000BC to 1000BC. • Early on, they developed legends of gods and heroes. • Main themes throughout Greek civilization: bravery, honor, dignity, and the love of beauty. • In religion, the Greeks worshiped gods and goddesses Temple built for Apollo (God of music, prophecy, archery & medicine) – 4th Century B.C. The Polis • Polis, or city-state, emerged as the political unit of Greek civilization. • A Polis included a city & surrounding villages/fields. • Citizens within a polis government could vote, hold public office, own property, and speak for themselves in court. • In return, they were expected to defend the polis in time of war. • Greek women had no political or legal rights. Greek Government • By the 700s BC, Kings were losing their powers and being challenged by lower classes. • As unrest increased, tyrannies arose in the city-states. (Tyrant: one man who seized power and ruled the polis on his own) • Tyrants ruled until 500BC until city-states became either: • Oligarchy: rule by a few wealthy people • Democracy: government and rule by the citizens Greek City-States • The two major city-states of ancient Greece were Sparta and Athens. • Sparta – Located in the Peloponnesus peninsula – Warlike society, used its army for control • Athens – Located on the Attica peninsula – Freer society known for artistic/intellectual achievements – Created a constitution, or plan of government, that stated all men were equal regardless of social class The Persian Wars This will be our focus next week, so stay tuned…… • Persia and Greece were enemies that fought for control of trade/travel routes. • Between 490-480B.C., the rivals go to war three times. • 7,000 Greeks (Spartans/Athenians) vs. 100,000 Persians The Peloponnesian War • War between Sparta and Athens that lasted from 431BC to 404BC. • Sparta allied with the Persians • A plague struck Athens and killed 1/3 of their population • Persian-financed Spartan navy destroyed Athens fleet. • Athenians surrendered CLOSURE • How was the government in Ancient Greece set up? • What is the difference between Sparta and Athens? • What is a Tyrant? Oligarchy? • What are the Persian Wars? • What are the Peloponnesian Wars? Engineering an Empire • Citizens of ancient Greece constructed many temples, statues, and buildings, but how did they do it? • In this video, you are going to learn about the history of the Greek city-states and the construction of these magnificent structures! • As you watch the video, answer the 15 questions on the worksheet. • Be ready to discuss!