Actually TWO revolutions:
February/March of 1917
– overthrow of the Tzar
October/November of 1917
Led to Russia withdrawing from WWI to deal with internal problems.
” put into effect instead of just
– communism vs. capitalism
– was the reason for the Cold
Communism is an ECONOMIC system.
Part of Karl Marx
’ s theory of economics.
Says that all the
“ means of production
” should be owned by the government for the good of the people
” everything and shares in the profits.
– no hunger, everyone works to the
“ best of their ability,
” and everyone gets just what they need.
Fails to take into account that we humans are greedy and lazy!
Karl Marx said that all of history is based upon economics (very good argument).
Marx saw an evolution of economics
– hunting and gathering
commercial enterprise (small cottage industry (make stuff at home to sell)
industrial revolution (so far, so good)
Marx was living during the Industrial Revolution and what he saw was very disturbing.
Workers paid just enough to survive
Factory owners making huge profits and getting greedier
– how to make more money?
Longer working hours, same pay, poor working conditions, dangerous working situations
– up to 40% of workers would be seriously injured or killed while working in a factory
Marx said that the working conditions and poor wages of the factory workers would not continue, that SOMEDAY workers would join together (
“ workers of the world unite
) and the proletariat would overthrow the owners and seize property to own jointly and to benefit EVERYONE
What does Marx have to do with Russia?
– Marx said that first a country had to go through the Industrial Revolution
Russia had not been industrialized and it was still a feudal society!
Russia had SOME factories, but 90% of the population of Russia were either serfs or peasants
– they lived on the land – feudalism.
Wait! I thought the serfs were freed in
Technically they were; HOWEVER, they had to actually
” their freedom and they had
20 years to do so, BUT how can you pay for your freedom when you can
’ t leave your land and find a job? Oh, wait, there weren
’ t any jobs except on land and only peasants and serfs could work on the land!
They fought in the army, but most of them died
– very high casualty rates!
– made up about 5% of the populations, were basically all related through one of eight noble families (Romanov,
Stroganov, etc.), and they owned about 80% of the land (and they are not selling it for anything).
What about the other 20% of the land?
Well, some serfs became peasants and did buy some land. These land-owning peasants are called Kulaks.
They got this land through the same law that freed the serfs
– said if they could buy their freedom they also had 20 years to pay on a small piece of land.
The nobles aren
’ t giving up anymore land!
So why choose horrible communism? We know it doesn ’ t work!
We know because hindsight is 20/20, but it sounded good to 90% of the Russian population in 1917.
Land of Mickey
Stand in long lines and hope to get items to survive!
– everybody has something and no one goes hungry!
Living in abject poverty with no chance of ever advancing!
Was the third son of
Was the Brother of
Alexander I, who died childless
Nicholas strove to serve country
’ s needs
– Good Czar
Son of Nicholas I.
He came to the throne during the Crimean
Emancipated the serfs in 1861
– still a good
Increased the repressive powers of the police
Limited the power of the local assemblies
Programs against anyone who was not
Sounds like a mean
Humiliating outcome of the
Russo-Japanese war led to
The Revolution of 1905.
Soon curtailed the Dumas
Decided to lead troops into battle during WWI
– stupid idea by a stupid man.
In 1917, unrest continued and he had to abdicate
Began in St Petersburg
Disaster of Russo-Japanese War revealed corruption and incompetence of czar
Constitutional Democratic Party
Had control over the
Tsar Nicholas II and the
Was murdered in
World War I was a disaster.
February Revolution (March 8, 1917)
Czar Nicholas Abdicates
For the next few months there is a
– who rules and keeps Russia in WWI.
In April, VI Lenin arrives in Petrograd (St.
Petersburg) with the help of the Germans
Lenin believes the communist system could work in
Lenin calls for armed resurrection
October 16, 1917/November 6, 1917 (Russian
Calendar) revolution led by the Bolsheviks
Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin are now
“ in charge
Glad you asked
– Civil War
Civil War broke out between two groups of
” in Russian, but in fact they had fewer members)
” in Russian, had fewer members, but this is what the Bolsheviks called them, so it stuck) -- WHITES
– they both agreed on the economic system of government; however, should people be allowed to
” or should those most
Lenin voted for the later and by 1920, Russia was firmly under his control.
Lost 32% of the land
Much of the
’ t care
– this was a capitalist war
Creation of USSR
Nationalization of all land and banks
New Economic Plan
Lenin dies of a stroke
Power Struggle after Lenin ’ s Death and
Stalin ’ s Rule
The Great Famine
The Great Terror
Massive Literacy Project
— all those who learn to read and write
Vastly improved health care
—all those who lived longer and healthier
Traditional Russian upper classes
Many of those in traditional
Russian middle classes
Those killed or imprisoned because of oppressive regime
Jews, Muslims, other ethnic minorities
– the royal family was killed, and their bodies were
” disposed of
– led to rumors of their survival