Is Our Food Safe From Attack?

In a Swine
Production Setting
Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food
Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8. Food Technology is a publication
of the Institute of Food Technologists,
Is Our Food Safe From Attack?
Will this Effect Missouri?
Missouri ranks
2nd in the nation
for number of
7th in the nation
for hogs and
“Show Me the Money”
Missouri farms rank
15th nationally for cash
Missouri farms have
estimated cash
receipts of 5.82 billion
dollars per year.
Case Study: Bitter Harvest
1973 Fire retardant (PBB) accidentally mixed
into feed rations for cattle.
Over a year later sickness in animals, and
humans is linked to PBBs.
Cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens, and
contaminated commodities are destroyed
and buried.
97% of humans living in
Michigan during that time
have PBBs in their system.
What Type of Harm Could Occur?
Intentional delivery of a harmful biological
or chemical agent to the food supply
system could cause:
Physical harm (illness or mortality)
Economic disruption
 Direct
 Indirect
 International
Political unrest
Psychological harm – loss of
confidence in food supply
Case Study: Melamine
Contaminated Wheat Gluten→
pet food .
Cats and dogs fall ill and some die.
Massive recall of pet food
Contamination was intentional.
Waste pet food fed to hogs in 7
56,000 hogs quarantined
Vulnerable Areas in The Farm to
Fork Food Supply Chain
Boar Semen
Supply Chain
Feed Mill
Buying Station
Food Defense focuses
on security, protecting
the food supply from
Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the
Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8. Food Technology
is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists,
Is Food Defense Different than
Food Defense focuses on
protecting the food supply from
intentional contamination.
Biosecurity and Food Safety
(HACCP) focus on protecting the
food supply from unintentional
contamination. They help with, but
are not a substitute for food defense.
Who Might Intentionally Contaminate an
Animal Production Facility?
Disgruntled employee/former
Contract or temporary employee
Members of terrorist or extremist
Truck driver
Affiliate of a competing facility
Visitor to facility
Potential Contaminants
Biological Agents: Injure by causing
disease, or producing toxin.
Chemical Agents: Injure through toxicity to
biological systems, or chemical burns to tissue.
Radiological Agents: Injure externally with
radiation burns and potentially deadly acute
radiation sickness. Injure internally by causing
damage to internal organs.
Case Study: This Little Piggy
1998, Malaysia cases of pigs dying were not
immediately recognized as outbreak
Oct. 1998 Pig farm workers suffer possible
encephalitis epidemic(265 cases, 105 deaths)
Identified as new virus now called Nipah
Over a million pigs from nearly 1,000 farms
were destroyed.
Pig production is reduced from 2.4 million to
1.32 million, and farms from 1885 to 829.
What Makes an Attractive Agent of
Intentional Contamination?
Long incubation
period/delayed effect
Highly effective
History of use
Available (easily produced
in adequate quantity)
Low traceability
Defense plans are
encouraged but not
required for farms and
most food
Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food
Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8. Food Technology is a publication
of the Institute of Food Technologists,
Facilities Currently Required to
Participate in Food Defense
All vendors providing food for USDA feeding
programs must now be in compliance with
the Food Defense System.
Four Steps for Developing a
Food Defense Plan
Assess the vulnerabilities
Write a plan
Evaluate the plan
Maintain the plan
Assess the vulnerabilities
Countermeasures are actions taken to
shield vulnerable areas, reducing the
risk of intentional contamination.
Areas to Consider for
Countermeasure Development
 Procedures
 Facility
 Technology
 Personnel
Countermeasures for
Shipping and Receiving
Visitors and Customers
Countermeasures for Facility
Light it
Lock it
Limit Access
Write the Plan
Should such an event occur a timely and
efficient response will be critical to
minimizing the damage.
Develop a Written Response Plan
Plan for handling of contaminated
Emergency Planning
Facility Map
Emergency Contact Phone List
Visitor Log
Supplier/Customer Contacts
Employee Emergency Information
Handling of Contaminated Animals
First hold all potentially contaminated
Potentially contaminated animals will need
to be quarantined prior to euthanasia.
Quarantine will need to be separate from
non contaminated animals.
Prepare a plan for carcass disposal, to be
reviewed by APHIS and state authorities in
case of an intentional contamination.
Swine Operation Containment and Disposal Plan
Facility Map
Name, address, and phone of
Relationship of the facility to adjacent
properties and/or structures.
Road access including transportation
Perimeter boundaries, include fences,
and gates (with dimensions)
Facility Map continued
Buildings, outbuildings, doors, windows,
AC/heating, ventilation
Utilities (water, gas, electric, phones)
location and shutoff
Septic System and drainage areas with
direction of flow
Web sites such as Google Earth
Water access
Swine Operation Emergency Phone List
Swine Operation Employee Emergency
Evaluate the plan
 Check
the perimeter
 Make unannounced
entrances at various times.
 Check locks in vulnerable
 Perform a mock quarantine.
Maintain the plan
Ensure that measures implemented
continue to be effective.
Train the family/employees regarding their
effort in:
Re-evaluate the plan annually or as
operations or facilities change.
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