Stephanie Madrid January 11, 2012 Chemistry Liz Schibuk Ester Synthesis Lab Report Purpose: The purpose of the lab was to synthesize esters. Introduction: In our first chemistry lab we were told to synthesize esters. An ester is an organic compound made when a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol. After the ester is made water is produced by the oxygen and two hydrogen’s the carboxylic acid and alcohol let off during the reaction. Carboxylic acids, alcohols, and esters are all functional groups. A functional group is a “specific group of atoms with in a molecule that is responsible for characteristics reactions of that molecule” (Chemistry.about.com). In this lab I combined different types of alcohols and carboxylic acids to make esters with different fruity scents and flavors. Materials: Various types of Alcohol Various types of organic acids Test tubes Hot plates Gloves Fume hood Goggles Pipits String rods Sulfuric acids Carboxylic acids Apron Water Vortex Tongs Procedures: First, in a dry 10-cm test tube put in 6 drops of the particular alcohol and 2 drops of the particular carboxylic acid. Second, agitate the carboxylic acid and alcohol by putting the test tube on the vortex or by shaking the test tube side to side softly. Third, carefully add 1 drop of the concentrated sulfuric acid. Fourth, heat the test tube for about 3 minutes or more if needed. Fifth, after being heated add 15 drops of water in the test tube. Finally, wave hand over the test tube and smell to see if the particular scent is there. Results: Carboxylic Acid Butyric Acid Alcohol Ethyl Scent Strawberry Butyric Acid n-butyl Pineapple Salicylic Acid Methanol (Methyl Alcohol) Octyl Alcohol Wintergreen Methanol (Methyl Alcohol Apple Acetic Acid Butyric Acid Orange Observations It smelled like strawberry, and had a very strong scent. First time we tried didn’t work and pineapple scent wasn’t there. Second time was successful and there was a scent of pineapple. Smelled exactly like Vicks vapor rub. Had a very faint smell of orange. Had a very faint smell of apple. Analysis of Results: Part one: Reactions Part 2: Questions 1. The evidence that I have that proves that an ester was produced in each of the reactions was when a carboxylic acid and an alcohol were combined to make an ester. The result that shows it’s an ester is the scent that you smell after making an ester. This is evidence because all esters have a sweet fruity scent. 2. The role that the sulfuric acid took in the reaction is being the catalyst used to speed up the reaction. Sulfuric Acid isn’t listed with the other reactants because it’s only used as a catalyst to speed up the reaction, and it isn’t a part in creating an ester. 3. In a molecular level what happens when an alcohol and a carboxylic acid react is first a hydrogen and oxygen is taken away from the carboxylic acid. In an alcohol hydrogen is taken away. After, the remains of the carboxylic acid links to the remains of the alcohol forming an ester. The oxygen and two hydrogen that broke off from the alcohol and carboxylic acid created an H2O (water) molecule. To complete the reaction a catalyst (sulfuric acid) is needed to speed up the reaction. Conclusion: The work I did on this lab demonstrates mastery on the GSE Reading for Science and Technology 9-10 3. I showed mastery on this GSE by first working with my group on our pre-lab worksheet that showed us how the lab was going to be organized and set up. After, as a class we had to watch a safety video before we were able to do the lab to make sure we would follow directions and the procedure during the lab. Then we took a test that consisted on the procedures and safety regulations of the lab based on the safety video we watched. I passed the test and I was able to go to the lab in Providence College. Before I could fully go I had to write a pre-lab which included the purpose of the lab, materials, procedures, and a data table where the results were noted on. This all demonstrates mastery on the GSE because it shows that I was able to follow the safety regulations and the procedures of the lab. I also was able to know how much carboxylic acid, alcohol, sulfuric acid, and water I had to put in the test tube, and for how long I needed to heat the test tube.