Unit 4 - Moore Public Schools

WHAP Exam Review
Period 4
Chapters 23-28
Big Picture
• Why did Europe become so dominant? Why
did some nations in Europe do better than
• How did non-European and European cultures
• How did economics change during this time?
• Human interaction with environment
The Renaissance
Rebirth in art, intellectualism
Rediscovered past
Growing middle class, more $$$$
Humanism= focus on human achievement
Art= Perspective, Medici Family were patrons,
Michelangelo, Brunelleschi, Leonardo da Vinci,
Donatello, Raphael, Van Eyck, Durer, etc.
• Can you contrast art from Middle Ages with
Renaissance art?
• Writing:
– Printing press by Gutenberg
– Vernacular
– Machiavelli, Erasmus, Sir Thomas More, Shakespeare, etc.
Protestant Reformation
• RCC was unifying force during the Middle Ages
• Martin Luther: upset with corruption of church
(indulgences); believed in salvation by faith not by
works, all believers are equal, can have personal
relationship with God, everyone can read and
interpret Bible; found guilty of heresy.
• Protestantism: Lutherans, Calvinism, Presbyterians,
Anglicans (Church of England started by Henry VIII)
• Change: Independent thinking?
• Counter-Reformation: Catholic Reformation, change
from within to not lose members, Ignatius Loyola
and Jesuits, Council of Trent
Scientific Revolution
Overturning old ideas of the Church
New ideas went against RCC beliefs
Scientific Method: must be proven
Deism: God as a watchmaker, created but did
not interfere
• Scientists: Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler,
The Enlightenment
• Key Ideas: Reason, nature, liberty, progress,
happiness 
• Divine Right to justify absolutism.
• Can you compare/contrast Divine Right and
Mandate of Heaven?
• Power to the People?
• Philosophes: Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire,
• Enlightened despots: Joseph II of Austria,
Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine the Great of
• Trade through Mediterranean and Indian Ocean, but
Europeans wanted to cut out Muslim middlemen
• Around Africa: Prince Henry the Navigator, Dias,
Da Gama
• Across the Ocean: Columbus, Vespucci, Ponce de
Leon, Balboa, Magellan, Hudson, Verrazano, Sir
Francis Drake, Cabot, etc.
• Treaty of Tordesillas
• Technology: sternpost rudder, lateen sails, astrolabe,
magnetic compass, three-masted caravels
New World Empire
• Conquistadors: Cortes conquered the Aztec, Pizarro
conquered the Inca, colonies formed
• Colonization of North America: British, French, Dutch
• How does empire building in the “New World”
compare to other empires so far?
• Encomienda: Viceroy (governor) over 5 regions of New
Spain, Peninsulares got land and laborers in exchange
for protecting the natives and converting them to
• Society: Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos, Mulattos,
Native Americans, Africans
The African Slave Trade
• Many natives died from diseases brought by
the Europeans
• Europeans needed a labor source for
plantations and mines
• Slave trade was already working in Africa
• Triangular Trade: Manufactured goods from
Europe to Africa, slaves from Africa to America
(Middle Passage), raw goods from Americas to
The Columbian Exchange
• The Exchange of people, plants, animals,
goods, etc. from Old World to New World and
vice versa.
• This includes technology, disease, ideas too.
• Could you write an essay about this?
The Commercial Revolution
• Lending money and charging interest on loans was
allowed by Church.
• Joint-stock companies: Muscovy Company of England,
Dutch East India Company, British East India Company,
• Royal charters for colonization in the New World
(Jamestown, Virginia)
• Mercantilism: export more than you import to make
$$$$$, had to find new markets for goods, tariffs
• Asia: China, Japan and India traded with Europe, but
China and Japan were very isolationist.
Spain and Portugal
• Ferdinand and Isabella ensured survival of Spanish
language and Catholicism, sent explorers
• Portugal: become middlemen in trade
• Charles V: a Hapsburg (Austrian) created a huge
European empire, was elected HRE by German
princes, went to live in a monastery and split
holdings between his brother and son
• Philip II: King of Spain (and part of France, Sicily,
Netherlands, New Spain, and Portugal), continued
Spanish Inquisition
• The Dutch revolted and formed a republic.
• Spanish Armada: fleet of ships
• Henry VIII: Act of Supremacy, pope had no authority in England,
Church of England
• Elizabeth I: golden age, commercial expansion and colonization,
exploration, literature/theatre
• James I: brought together England and Scotland, Divine right,
Puritans/Pilgrims, Bible
• Charles I: Petition of Right
• Civil War: Oliver Cromwell and Roundheads executed the king,
Cromwell became Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth
(not a monarchy), Cromwell ruled with religious intolerance
• Restoration: Charles II was put on throne, Habeas Corpus
• James II: Openly Catholic, divine right
• Glorious Revolution: James II fled, replaced by William and Mary,
Protestant rulers of Netherlands, English Bill of Rights in 1689.
• Began to really unify politically after Hundred Year’s War,
but was divided religiously between Catholic and
Protestants (Huguenots)
• Edict of Nantes: religious tolerance by Henry IV in 1598
• Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin: advised monarchs
• Louis XIV: “Sun King”, absolute, Versailles, revoked Edict
of Nantes
• Jean Baptiste Colbert: Mercantilist, increase size of empire
causing wars
• War of Spanish Succession: One of Louis XIV’s grandsons
inherited throne of Spain. England, HRE, and German
princes all united against this. Philip V could rule Spain
but separate from France.
German Areas/HRE
HRE neither Holy, nor Roman, nor an empire.
Very feudal with lords/princes of various areas.
HRE lost Hungary to Ottoman Empire.
Thirty Year’s War: Protestants vs. Catholics,
weakened HRE, nation-states would emerge
– Peace of Westphalia (1648): independence of small
German states
• Prussia gained power
• Ivan III: refused to pay tribute to the Mongols
• Ivan IV: absolute rule, expanded eastward, the Terrible,
reign of terror
– Cossacks: peasant-soldiers conquered land for Russia and
freedom from feudal lords
• Time of Troubles: one pretender to the throne would be
killed by another and then another. Ended with Michael
Romanov elected to czar by feudal lords.
• Can we compare forced labor systems?
• Peter the Great: 1682-1725, westernized Russia, navy, St.
Petersburg, fashion, beard tax, potato, printing press
• Catherine the Great: enlightened but kept serfdom, grew
Russia to the west.
• Compare Russia with Japan during this time.
Islamic Gunpowder Empires
• Ottoman Empire: started by Osman Bey, Anatolia,
Istanbul (Constantinople) is capital, Janisseries,
Sulieman I the Magnificent---expanded, golden age
• Safavid Empire: Shia Islam, Persia
• Mughal Empire:
– Babur invaded Northern India in 1526, defeated the Delhi
Sultanate, and created Mughal empire. United almost
the entire subcontinent.
– Akbar ruled with religious tolerance, tried to eliminate
sati, golden age
– Shah Jahan: built Taj Mahal
– Later tolerance ended. Hindus persecuted.
– Increased influence of the Europeans
• Songhai: sub-Saharan, trans-Saharan trade of
salt and gold, Islamic state, conquests of
military to grow
• Kongo: West coast of Africa, traded with
Portuguese, Roman Catholic, Portuguese
traders undermined authority of kings
• Angola: South of Kongo, Queen Nzinga
resisted Portuguese take over
• Ming dynasty kicked out the Mongols by 1368 and ruled
until 1644
• Ming had centralized government, reinstated civil-service
exam, and removed Mongol influence.
• Ming built huge naval fleets led by Zheng He.
• Ming switched from paper money to silver.
• Ming had internal problems, famines, inflation which led to
peasant revolts.
• Ming emperor invited Qing warriors from nearby
Manchuria to help keep down peasants, but then they took
over. (duh)This starts the Qing or Manchu dynasty. Kept
separation between Manchus and Chinese. Supported
arts, grew empire. Isolationist, Christianity banned.
• Feudalism began to wane and centralized
power emerged.
• Portuguese introduced guns.
• Christianity, many converted
• Tokugawa Shogunate: 1600-1868. Shogun
gained back power. Strict class system.
Capital moved to Edo (Tokyo). Christians were
persecuted. National Seclusion Policy.
• Culture: Kabuki theatre, haiku poetry
Technology and Innovations
Gunpowder weapons
Navigation and ship-building technology
Printing press
We gained expanded knowledge of the world.
Role of Women
• Status changed little from before
• Still considered property of their husbands,
few rights
• Some women ruled like Elizabeth I of England
• Mixing of cultures, mestizos, led to marriage
• Older/widowed women gained more respect
• Little educational opportunities
Big Picture
• Age of Exploration---What all was explored?
Not just land but religion, history, culture,
science. Some was inward, outward,
backward, forward
• Why was non-European interaction with
Europe so varied?
• Think GRAPES for all regions/societies for