WHAP Exam Review Period 4 1450-1750 Chapters 23-28 Big Picture • Why did Europe become so dominant? Why did some nations in Europe do better than others? • How did non-European and European cultures interact? • How did economics change during this time? • Human interaction with environment The Renaissance • • • • • Rebirth in art, intellectualism Rediscovered past Growing middle class, more $$$$ Humanism= focus on human achievement Art= Perspective, Medici Family were patrons, Michelangelo, Brunelleschi, Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello, Raphael, Van Eyck, Durer, etc. • Can you contrast art from Middle Ages with Renaissance art? • Writing: – Printing press by Gutenberg – Vernacular – Machiavelli, Erasmus, Sir Thomas More, Shakespeare, etc. Protestant Reformation • RCC was unifying force during the Middle Ages • Martin Luther: upset with corruption of church (indulgences); believed in salvation by faith not by works, all believers are equal, can have personal relationship with God, everyone can read and interpret Bible; found guilty of heresy. • Protestantism: Lutherans, Calvinism, Presbyterians, Anglicans (Church of England started by Henry VIII) • Change: Independent thinking? • Counter-Reformation: Catholic Reformation, change from within to not lose members, Ignatius Loyola and Jesuits, Council of Trent Scientific Revolution • • • • Overturning old ideas of the Church New ideas went against RCC beliefs Scientific Method: must be proven Deism: God as a watchmaker, created but did not interfere • Scientists: Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton The Enlightenment • Key Ideas: Reason, nature, liberty, progress, happiness • Divine Right to justify absolutism. • Can you compare/contrast Divine Right and Mandate of Heaven? • Power to the People? • Philosophes: Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire, Montesquieu • Enlightened despots: Joseph II of Austria, Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia Exploration • Trade through Mediterranean and Indian Ocean, but Europeans wanted to cut out Muslim middlemen • Around Africa: Prince Henry the Navigator, Dias, Da Gama • Across the Ocean: Columbus, Vespucci, Ponce de Leon, Balboa, Magellan, Hudson, Verrazano, Sir Francis Drake, Cabot, etc. • Treaty of Tordesillas • Technology: sternpost rudder, lateen sails, astrolabe, magnetic compass, three-masted caravels New World Empire • Conquistadors: Cortes conquered the Aztec, Pizarro conquered the Inca, colonies formed • Colonization of North America: British, French, Dutch • How does empire building in the “New World” compare to other empires so far? • Encomienda: Viceroy (governor) over 5 regions of New Spain, Peninsulares got land and laborers in exchange for protecting the natives and converting them to Christianity • Society: Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos, Mulattos, Native Americans, Africans The African Slave Trade • Many natives died from diseases brought by the Europeans • Europeans needed a labor source for plantations and mines • Slave trade was already working in Africa • Triangular Trade: Manufactured goods from Europe to Africa, slaves from Africa to America (Middle Passage), raw goods from Americas to Europe The Columbian Exchange • The Exchange of people, plants, animals, goods, etc. from Old World to New World and vice versa. • This includes technology, disease, ideas too. • Could you write an essay about this? The Commercial Revolution • Lending money and charging interest on loans was allowed by Church. • Joint-stock companies: Muscovy Company of England, Dutch East India Company, British East India Company, etc. • Royal charters for colonization in the New World (Jamestown, Virginia) • Mercantilism: export more than you import to make $$$$$, had to find new markets for goods, tariffs created • Asia: China, Japan and India traded with Europe, but China and Japan were very isolationist. Spain and Portugal • Ferdinand and Isabella ensured survival of Spanish language and Catholicism, sent explorers • Portugal: become middlemen in trade • Charles V: a Hapsburg (Austrian) created a huge European empire, was elected HRE by German princes, went to live in a monastery and split holdings between his brother and son • Philip II: King of Spain (and part of France, Sicily, Netherlands, New Spain, and Portugal), continued Spanish Inquisition • The Dutch revolted and formed a republic. • Spanish Armada: fleet of ships England • Henry VIII: Act of Supremacy, pope had no authority in England, Church of England • Elizabeth I: golden age, commercial expansion and colonization, exploration, literature/theatre • James I: brought together England and Scotland, Divine right, Puritans/Pilgrims, Bible • Charles I: Petition of Right • Civil War: Oliver Cromwell and Roundheads executed the king, Cromwell became Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth (not a monarchy), Cromwell ruled with religious intolerance • Restoration: Charles II was put on throne, Habeas Corpus • James II: Openly Catholic, divine right • Glorious Revolution: James II fled, replaced by William and Mary, Protestant rulers of Netherlands, English Bill of Rights in 1689. France • Began to really unify politically after Hundred Year’s War, but was divided religiously between Catholic and Protestants (Huguenots) • Edict of Nantes: religious tolerance by Henry IV in 1598 • Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin: advised monarchs • Louis XIV: “Sun King”, absolute, Versailles, revoked Edict of Nantes • Jean Baptiste Colbert: Mercantilist, increase size of empire causing wars • War of Spanish Succession: One of Louis XIV’s grandsons inherited throne of Spain. England, HRE, and German princes all united against this. Philip V could rule Spain but separate from France. German Areas/HRE • • • • HRE neither Holy, nor Roman, nor an empire. Very feudal with lords/princes of various areas. HRE lost Hungary to Ottoman Empire. Thirty Year’s War: Protestants vs. Catholics, weakened HRE, nation-states would emerge – Peace of Westphalia (1648): independence of small German states • Prussia gained power Russia • Ivan III: refused to pay tribute to the Mongols • Ivan IV: absolute rule, expanded eastward, the Terrible, reign of terror – Cossacks: peasant-soldiers conquered land for Russia and freedom from feudal lords • Time of Troubles: one pretender to the throne would be killed by another and then another. Ended with Michael Romanov elected to czar by feudal lords. • Can we compare forced labor systems? • Peter the Great: 1682-1725, westernized Russia, navy, St. Petersburg, fashion, beard tax, potato, printing press • Catherine the Great: enlightened but kept serfdom, grew Russia to the west. • Compare Russia with Japan during this time. Islamic Gunpowder Empires • Ottoman Empire: started by Osman Bey, Anatolia, Istanbul (Constantinople) is capital, Janisseries, Sulieman I the Magnificent---expanded, golden age • Safavid Empire: Shia Islam, Persia • Mughal Empire: – Babur invaded Northern India in 1526, defeated the Delhi Sultanate, and created Mughal empire. United almost the entire subcontinent. – Akbar ruled with religious tolerance, tried to eliminate sati, golden age – Shah Jahan: built Taj Mahal – Later tolerance ended. Hindus persecuted. – Increased influence of the Europeans Africa • Songhai: sub-Saharan, trans-Saharan trade of salt and gold, Islamic state, conquests of military to grow • Kongo: West coast of Africa, traded with Portuguese, Roman Catholic, Portuguese traders undermined authority of kings • Angola: South of Kongo, Queen Nzinga resisted Portuguese take over China • Ming dynasty kicked out the Mongols by 1368 and ruled until 1644 • Ming had centralized government, reinstated civil-service exam, and removed Mongol influence. • Ming built huge naval fleets led by Zheng He. • Ming switched from paper money to silver. • Ming had internal problems, famines, inflation which led to peasant revolts. • Ming emperor invited Qing warriors from nearby Manchuria to help keep down peasants, but then they took over. (duh)This starts the Qing or Manchu dynasty. Kept separation between Manchus and Chinese. Supported arts, grew empire. Isolationist, Christianity banned. Japan • Feudalism began to wane and centralized power emerged. • Portuguese introduced guns. • Christianity, many converted • Tokugawa Shogunate: 1600-1868. Shogun gained back power. Strict class system. Capital moved to Edo (Tokyo). Christians were persecuted. National Seclusion Policy. • Culture: Kabuki theatre, haiku poetry Technology and Innovations • • • • Gunpowder weapons Navigation and ship-building technology Printing press We gained expanded knowledge of the world. Role of Women • Status changed little from before • Still considered property of their husbands, few rights • Some women ruled like Elizabeth I of England • Mixing of cultures, mestizos, led to marriage restrictions • Older/widowed women gained more respect • Little educational opportunities Big Picture • Age of Exploration---What all was explored? Not just land but religion, history, culture, science. Some was inward, outward, backward, forward • Why was non-European interaction with Europe so varied? • Think GRAPES for all regions/societies for essays.