Unit Four Engineering Design Big Events in Engineering? Who are Engineers? What is Engineering? Engineering Design? This material is based upon work supported by the national science foundation under Grant No. 0402616. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Invention and Innovation Tech 665 Tom Weber Spring 2006 Big Events in the past 70 years • What do Pearl Harbor attack, the Hiroshima bomb, Sputnik and 9-11 attack effect engineering? • Research and development boomed in all fields of science and technology after World War II, partly because of the Cold War and the Sputnik. • Engineering was also stimulated by new technologies. Aerospace, microelectronics, computers, new means of telecommunications from the Internet to cell phones. • Turbojet and rocket engines propelled aeronautic engineering into unseen height and spawned astronautic engineering. Usage of atomic and nuclear power brought nuclear engineering. • Advanced materials with performance undreamed of poured out from the laboratories of materials science and engineering. • Microelectronics, telecommunications, and computer engineering joined force to cause the information revolution in which intellectual jobs are increasingly alleviated by machines. • www.creatingtechnology.org/history3.htm Who are Engineers? • People who synthesize, solve problems, and innovate...all big words meaning that they make new things and make old things better. • What it Takes to be an Engineer (2.4 mb) • Problem solvers for mankind. • Engineers work to make things in our lives more efficient – or faster, lighter, bigger, smaller, cheaper or more powerful. • Engineers want to automate machine to lower costs and to stop accidents. How do I become an Engineer? • How can I become an engineer? In order to become an engineer, you need a college degree. It helps to begin preparations for all this at the middle school levels. Where possible, choose a well-rounded mix of classes with emphasis on math and science. Work with your teachers, counselors, parents, and engineers in your community to make a plan for your future success. • How long do engineers have to go to school? Engineers need a minimum of a college Bachelor's degree. That means they must finish high school and typically four years of college. A few engineering programs take five years. A college degree could take longer if you only attend college part time or perhaps attend during evenings. Types of Engineers • Ten branches of engineering • Engineering is divided into many branches. Here are ten major ones: • aeronautics and astronautics • biological engineering • chemical engineering • civil engineering • computer science & engineering • electrical & electronic engineering • environmental engineering • mechanical engineering • nuclear engineering • systems engineering Engineer hours and computers • What hours do engineers work? Most engineers work weekdays, Monday through Friday. Typically they work from 8 to 10 hours per day. There are some companies that have very flexible work schedules such that their engineers come in for some 8-hour period during the day (say from 6 p.m. to 2 a.m.)! Sometimes engineers work at a job site where something is happening 24 hours a day and they work a 'shift' schedule. • Do engineers use computers? Definitely! For everything from office work such as e-mail and reports, to graphics, to serious number crunching. It's usually a contest between the scientists and the engineers as to who has the most computing horsepower at their disposal and who has the coolest software. Where to go to school? -NDSU, UND, U of M Famous Engineers • Douglas Engelbart - inventor of the mouse, electrical engineer • Judith Resnik - Challenger astronuat, electrical engineer • Ryan Newman - NASCAR driver, mechanical engineer • Annika Sorenstam, professional golfer, studied engineering in college • Joesph Strauss et al. - designers and builders of the Golden Gate Bridge • Herbert Hoover - 31st President of the United States • Neil Armstrong - astronaut, aeronautical engineer • No, Bill Gates is not an engineer! Alice Tredwell, supervisor of the Bhore-Ghat Line of the Great India Peninsula Railway from 1855. What is engineering? • "Engineering is the application of math and science to create something of value from our natural resources." • Theodore Von Karman, an aerospace engineer, put it nicely when he said, "Scientists discover the world that exists; engineers create the world that never was." • http://www.discoverengineering.org/ downloads.asp Engineering of Bicycles and More (10.1 mb) Engineering Design •The process for designing solutions to technological or engineering problems. A very defined way engineers use to solve a problem. 1. Identify the problem 2. Define the problem (refine) 3. Gather information 4. Develop alternative solutions 5. Select and refine the best solution 6. Express the design. (Sketch or Drawing) 7. Build a model 8. Evaluate, revise and refine solution 9. Communicate the solution. DESIGN • Design involves a set of steps, which can be performed in different sequences and repeated as needed. • Each design problem if different and may require different procedures. Engineers and designers also have there preferences and problem solving styles. Brainstorming • Brainstorming is a group problem solving design process in which each person in the group presents his or her ideas in an open forum. In this process, no person is allowed to criticize anyone else ideas regardless of how inane they may seem. All the ideas are recorded and the group selects the best one. Modeling, testing, evaluating & modifying • This process is creating and testing physical models. Models are important for the design of large items like cars, aircraft and spacecraft. • It is cheaper to analyze a model before the final products and systems are actually made. • Evaluation is used to determine how well the design meets the criteria of the design. Model Example • In the town of Beulah North Dakota, they have a coal fired power plant which was built only after a model of the plant was constructed. • The Model cost $250,000 and helped in the construction process. It is as large as a two stall garage. Antelope Valley Station Standards and Benchmarks • • • • • • • • • • Standard 9: Students will develop an understanding of engineering design. Design involves a set of steps, which can be performed in different sequences and repeated as needed. Brainstorming is a group problem-solving design process in which each person in the group presents his or her ideas in an open forum. Modeling, testing, evaluating, and modifying are used to transform ideas into practical solutions. Standard 11: Students will develop abilities to apply the design process. Apply a design process to solve problems in and beyond the laboratory-classroom. Specify criteria and constraints for the design. Make two-dimensional and three-dimensional representations of the designed solution. Test and evaluate the design in relation to pre-established requirements, such as criteria and constraints, and refine as needed. Make a product or system and document the solution. • Standard 12: Students will develop abilities to use and maintain technological products and systems. • Use information provided in manuals, protocols, or by experienced people to see and understand how things work. Use tolls, materials, and machine safely to diagnose, adjust, and repairs systems. Use computers and calculations in various applications. Operate and maintain systems in order to achieve a given purpose. • • • This material is based upon work supported by the national science foundation under Grant No. 0402616. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation (NSF).