Leadership Skills for Living Well at Work and Home Paul E

Leadership Skills for Living Well
at Work and Home
Paul E. Chapman, Ph. D.
Associate Professor
Educational Leadership Studies
College of Human Resources and Education
Leadership Skills for Living Well
at Work and Home
• Develop a better understanding of leadership in
terms of everyday behavior and how it impacts
• Develop a better understanding of good
leadership behavior as a skill set that can be
practiced and improved upon
• Develop a better understanding of how to
demonstrate the transfer of leadership skills to
work and life
Presentation Format
• My early leader role models and what I
learned from them
• Five categories of organizational theory
and the emergence of leadership theory
• Edgar Schein on organizational culture
• Joe Murphy’s eras of educational
leadership preparation
• Different views of leadership styles and
My early leader role models and what I
learned from them
My father: Princert Eltwain
• The Great Santini
• Perseverance
• Respect of all cultures and people
• Collaboration and Teaming
• Quiet Spiritual Nature
• Love of family and for life
My early leader role models and what I
learned from them
My mother: Barbra Joan
• Only civilian woman of a G. S. grade to be
decorated with a medal of service award
by the secretary of defense
• Love of family and for life
• Perseverance
• Hard work pays off
• Setting goals and priorities
My early leader role models and what I
learned from them
My sister: Paulette Elaine
• President of the Washington D. C.
Women’s Bar Association 2004-2005
established in 1919
• Third woman to become President of the
Bar Association of the District of Columbia
established in 1871
• Perseverance
• Hard work pays off
• Love of family and for life
Organizational theory and the
emergence of leadership theory
• Classical organization theory has no clear
beginning. From as early as the times of
Moses and Socrates people have sought
structure for groups. Most students of
organizational theory agree that the
beginning of complex economic
organizations in Great Britain spurred the
Classical Organizational Theory
From: Shafritz, Ott, & Jang (2005)
Classical organization theory
– Frederick Winslow Taylor (1916), The
Principles of Scientific Management
– Max Weber (1922), Bureaucracy
From: Shafritz, Ott, & Jang (2005)
Neoclassical organization theory
• Neoclassical theorists emerged after World
War II. They wrote about the work of the
classical theorists with a critical view. Many
of the neoclassical theorists targeted the
lack of attention given to the human
condition within organizations as the focus
of their work.
– Chester I. Barnard (1938), The Economy of
– Robert K. Merton (1957), Bureaucratic
Structure and Personality
From: Shafritz, Ott, & Jang (2005)
Human resource theory
Human resource theory came from behavioral
scientists focusing their questions at how
organizations benefit when they do things to
encourage the growth and development of
workers in the organizations (Argyris, 1970).
Human resource theorists use the following
Organizations are formed to serve human needs.
Organizations and people need each other.
Organization type and people type must be a match
for both to benefit (Bolman & Deal, 1991, p. 121).
Human Resource
• Mary Parker Follett (1926), The Giving of
"Marry Parker Follett, in calling for "power
with" as opposed to "power over,"
anticipates the movement toward more
participatory management styles” (p. 10).
Human Resource
• Abraham H. Maslow (1943), A Theory of
Human Motivation
Physiological Needs
The Safety Need
The Love Needs
The Need for Self Actualization
• “Modern” structural organization theorists
are concerned with the one best way to
design an organization. Modern
structuralists use many of the assumptions
used by the classical school. The term
“modern” distinguishes the period of time
(1960s and 1970s) the theorists worked.
From: Shafritz, Ott, & Jang (2005)
Systems Theory
• Robert Katz and Daniel Kahn’s The Social
Psychology of Organizations (1966), was
influential to the systems theory approach.
The introduction of the organization as an
open system was a major shift in
theoretical approach to organizations.
Organizational Culture
Theorists interested in organizational
culture are just beginning to make
contributions to the knowledge base of
organizational theory. Their focus is on
what makes up the organization’s,
“…values, beliefs, assumptions,
perceptions, behavioral norms, artifacts,
and patterns of behavior” (Shafritz & Ott,
1998, p. 420).
Edgar Schein on Org. Culture
• Culture can be analyzed as a phenomenon that
surrounds us at all times, being constantly enacted and
created by our interactions with others. My perspective
on culture is different. When one brings culture to the
level of the organization and even down to groups within
the organization, one can see more clearly how it is
created, embedded, developed, and ultimately
manipulated, managed, and changed. These dynamic
processes of culture creation and management are the
essence of leadership and make one realize that
leadership and culture are two sides of the same calling.
(p. 1)
From: Schein E. (1992)
Three Levels of Org. Culture
Artifacts-- Visible organizational
structures and processes (hard to
Espoused Values-- Strategies, goals,
philosophies (espoused justifications)
Basic Underlying Assumptions-Unconscious, taken-for-granted beliefs,
perceptions, thoughts, and feelings
(ultimate source of values and action)
Espoused Value
The Leadership Institute will generate a
rich and diverse array of opportunities for
all people to discover, express and
nurture their innate capacity for
leadership, thereby inspiring the dynamic
development of a positive learning
Educational Leadership
Joe Murphy’s (1993) four eras of educational
leadership preparation from the simple and
idealistic to the complex
Ideological Era (1820-1900)
No formal preparation
School leaders selected on the basis of character
and ideology
Prescriptive Era (1900-1946)
125 institutions preparing school leaders
Content based on technical aspects of
Generally white males
Educational Leadership
Scientific Era (1947-1985)
– Content shift to the theoretical and
conceptual material from social sciences
Dialectic Era (1985 – Present)
– We are exploring the alternative approaches
to how we structure school leadership
preparation programs
From: Murphy J. (1993)
Covey’s (2004) Eight Habits From Effectiveness to
• Be Proactive
• Begin with the end in mind
• Put first things first
• Think win/win
• Seek first to understand then to be understood
• Synergize
• Sharpen the saw
• Find your voice and inspire others to find theirs
Kouzes & Posner (2002) Five
Characteristics of Good Leadership
• Challenge the Process
• Inspire a Shared Vision
• Enable Others to Act
• Model the Way
• Encourage the Heart
Learning Leadership
• Everyday behavior
• Leadership is a set of skills (Practice
makes perfect)
• Making the transfer to work and life
Applications for My Research
• 21st Century Teaching, Learning, and
• School Leadership and School
• School Leadership and the
Enhancement of Overall Student
Open Discussion of Leadership
I would like to thank Dr. Khakoo for the
invitation to speak with you, and all of you
for your kind attention. Please join me in
an open discussion about leadership.
Special thanks to Gwendolyn Marshall for all
of her kind assistance in making this
Argyis, C. (1962). Interpersonal competence and organizational
effectiveness. Homewood, IL: The Dorsey Press and Richard D.
Bolman, L. G. & Deal, T. E. (1997). Reframing organizations:
Artistry, choice, and leadership( 2nd edition). Jossey-Bass: San
Covey, S. R. (2004). The 8th habit: From effectiveness to greatness. New
York: Simon and Schuster.
Covey, S. R. (1989). The seven habits of highly effective people:
Restoring the character ethic. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Kouzes, J. M. & Posner, B. Z. (2002). The leadership challenge. San
Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
Murphy, J., Ed. (1993). Preparing tomorrow's school leaders:
Alternative designs. University Park, MD: UCEA.
Shafritz, J. M., & Ott, J. S., Jang, Y. S. (2005). Classics of organization
theory (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Wadsworth.
Shafritz, J. M., & Ott, J. S. (1998). Classics of organization theory
ed.). Washington, DC: Wadsworth.