Leadership Skills for Living Well at Work and Home Paul E. Chapman, Ph. D. Associate Professor Educational Leadership Studies College of Human Resources and Education Leadership Skills for Living Well at Work and Home • Develop a better understanding of leadership in terms of everyday behavior and how it impacts others • Develop a better understanding of good leadership behavior as a skill set that can be practiced and improved upon • Develop a better understanding of how to demonstrate the transfer of leadership skills to work and life Presentation Format • My early leader role models and what I learned from them • Five categories of organizational theory and the emergence of leadership theory • Edgar Schein on organizational culture • Joe Murphy’s eras of educational leadership preparation • Different views of leadership styles and practices My early leader role models and what I learned from them My father: Princert Eltwain • The Great Santini • Perseverance • Respect of all cultures and people • Collaboration and Teaming • Quiet Spiritual Nature • Love of family and for life My early leader role models and what I learned from them My mother: Barbra Joan • Only civilian woman of a G. S. grade to be decorated with a medal of service award by the secretary of defense • Love of family and for life • Perseverance • Hard work pays off • Setting goals and priorities My early leader role models and what I learned from them My sister: Paulette Elaine • President of the Washington D. C. Women’s Bar Association 2004-2005 established in 1919 • Third woman to become President of the Bar Association of the District of Columbia established in 1871 • Perseverance • Hard work pays off • Love of family and for life Organizational theory and the emergence of leadership theory • Classical organization theory has no clear beginning. From as early as the times of Moses and Socrates people have sought structure for groups. Most students of organizational theory agree that the beginning of complex economic organizations in Great Britain spurred the Classical Organizational Theory Movement. From: Shafritz, Ott, & Jang (2005) 7 Classical organization theory – Frederick Winslow Taylor (1916), The Principles of Scientific Management – Max Weber (1922), Bureaucracy From: Shafritz, Ott, & Jang (2005) 8 Neoclassical organization theory • Neoclassical theorists emerged after World War II. They wrote about the work of the classical theorists with a critical view. Many of the neoclassical theorists targeted the lack of attention given to the human condition within organizations as the focus of their work. – Chester I. Barnard (1938), The Economy of Incentives – Robert K. Merton (1957), Bureaucratic Structure and Personality From: Shafritz, Ott, & Jang (2005) 9 Human resource theory • Human resource theory came from behavioral scientists focusing their questions at how organizations benefit when they do things to encourage the growth and development of workers in the organizations (Argyris, 1970). Human resource theorists use the following assumptions: – – – Organizations are formed to serve human needs. Organizations and people need each other. Organization type and people type must be a match for both to benefit (Bolman & Deal, 1991, p. 121). Human Resource • Mary Parker Follett (1926), The Giving of Orders "Marry Parker Follett, in calling for "power with" as opposed to "power over," anticipates the movement toward more participatory management styles” (p. 10). Human Resource • Abraham H. Maslow (1943), A Theory of Human Motivation Physiological Needs The Safety Need The Love Needs The Need for Self Actualization Modern • “Modern” structural organization theorists are concerned with the one best way to design an organization. Modern structuralists use many of the assumptions used by the classical school. The term “modern” distinguishes the period of time (1960s and 1970s) the theorists worked. From: Shafritz, Ott, & Jang (2005) 13 Systems Theory • Robert Katz and Daniel Kahn’s The Social Psychology of Organizations (1966), was influential to the systems theory approach. The introduction of the organization as an open system was a major shift in theoretical approach to organizations. Organizational Culture • Theorists interested in organizational culture are just beginning to make contributions to the knowledge base of organizational theory. Their focus is on what makes up the organization’s, “…values, beliefs, assumptions, perceptions, behavioral norms, artifacts, and patterns of behavior” (Shafritz & Ott, 1998, p. 420). Edgar Schein on Org. Culture • Culture can be analyzed as a phenomenon that surrounds us at all times, being constantly enacted and created by our interactions with others. My perspective on culture is different. When one brings culture to the level of the organization and even down to groups within the organization, one can see more clearly how it is created, embedded, developed, and ultimately manipulated, managed, and changed. These dynamic processes of culture creation and management are the essence of leadership and make one realize that leadership and culture are two sides of the same calling. (p. 1) From: Schein E. (1992) 16 Three Levels of Org. Culture • • • Artifacts-- Visible organizational structures and processes (hard to decipher) Espoused Values-- Strategies, goals, philosophies (espoused justifications) Basic Underlying Assumptions-Unconscious, taken-for-granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings (ultimate source of values and action) Espoused Value • The Leadership Institute will generate a rich and diverse array of opportunities for all people to discover, express and nurture their innate capacity for leadership, thereby inspiring the dynamic development of a positive learning culture. Educational Leadership • • Joe Murphy’s (1993) four eras of educational leadership preparation from the simple and idealistic to the complex Ideological Era (1820-1900) – – • No formal preparation School leaders selected on the basis of character and ideology Prescriptive Era (1900-1946) – – – 125 institutions preparing school leaders Content based on technical aspects of administration Generally white males Educational Leadership • Scientific Era (1947-1985) – Content shift to the theoretical and conceptual material from social sciences • Dialectic Era (1985 – Present) – We are exploring the alternative approaches to how we structure school leadership preparation programs From: Murphy J. (1993) 20 Leadership Covey’s (2004) Eight Habits From Effectiveness to Greatness • Be Proactive • Begin with the end in mind • Put first things first • Think win/win • Seek first to understand then to be understood • Synergize • Sharpen the saw • Find your voice and inspire others to find theirs Leadership Kouzes & Posner (2002) Five Characteristics of Good Leadership • Challenge the Process • Inspire a Shared Vision • Enable Others to Act • Model the Way • Encourage the Heart Learning Leadership • Everyday behavior • Leadership is a set of skills (Practice makes perfect) • Making the transfer to work and life Applications for My Research • 21st Century Teaching, Learning, and Leadership • School Leadership and School Culture • School Leadership and the Enhancement of Overall Student Achievement Open Discussion of Leadership I would like to thank Dr. Khakoo for the invitation to speak with you, and all of you for your kind attention. Please join me in an open discussion about leadership. Special thanks to Gwendolyn Marshall for all of her kind assistance in making this happen. References • • • • • • • • Argyis, C. (1962). Interpersonal competence and organizational effectiveness. Homewood, IL: The Dorsey Press and Richard D. Irwin. Bolman, L. G. & Deal, T. E. (1997). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership( 2nd edition). Jossey-Bass: San Francisco. Covey, S. R. (2004). The 8th habit: From effectiveness to greatness. New York: Simon and Schuster. Covey, S. R. (1989). The seven habits of highly effective people: Restoring the character ethic. New York: Simon and Schuster. Kouzes, J. M. & Posner, B. Z. (2002). The leadership challenge. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Murphy, J., Ed. (1993). Preparing tomorrow's school leaders: Alternative designs. University Park, MD: UCEA. Shafritz, J. M., & Ott, J. S., Jang, Y. S. (2005). Classics of organization theory (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Wadsworth. Shafritz, J. M., & Ott, J. S. (1998). Classics of organization theory (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Wadsworth.