Dr. Sun Yat-sen

The Rise of Nationalists and Sun
Revolution of 1911
Radicalization of politics
status quo
modern monarchy
Qing court
pre-1841 China
The Revolution of 1911
• 1911-10-10, Wuchang Uprising
– Qing dynasty was overthrown
• 1912-01-01, China became a republic
Republican Revolution (1912)
• Sun Yat-sen (Sun Yixian)
– Founded Kuomintang (KMT) –
Nationalist party
• Overthrew Manchu (Qing)
• Established a republic
• President of Chinese Republic
who succeeded him – Yuan Shihk’ai
Formation of the Chinese Republic
• Sun Yixian (Yatsen)
– Leader of the Kuomintang
• Kuomintang  China’s Nationalist Party
• Overthrows Qing Emperor in 1911 and becomes China’s
first president, but…
• “The Chinese people…do not have national spirit.
Therefore, even though we have four hundred million
people gathered together in China…they are just a heap
of loose sand.”
– Sun could not unite China
– Turns over presidency to a top general who overturns
democratic reforms
– China becomes a military dictatorship overrun by warlords
Three Principles of the People
• Book published by Sun Yat-Sen before his
death in 1925
1. Principle of Mínquán
Democracy – the people are sovereign
2. Principle of Mínzú
Nationalism – an end to foreign imperialism
3. Principle of Mínshēng
Livelihood – economic development, industrialization,
land reform, and social welfare – elements of
progressivism and socialism
China after 1911
• The Revolution of 1911 was intended to create
a modern republican form of government in
• Instead, the country broke up into warlorddominated regions with increasing poverty
and violence.
• The Kuomintang (Nationalist) Party led the
revolution, but controlled few areas.
Dr. Sun Yixian (1866 –
(Dr. Sun Yat-sen)
Kuomintang Party
• Sun Yat-sen was the main leader of the 1911
Revolution and the Nationalist Party (KMT).
• He died in 1925 and was succeeded as leader
by Chiang Kai-shek.
• Chiang cooperated with the Communists for a
time, but then massacred them in 1927.
Problems Facing Nationalists and
Sun Yat-Sen
Republic of China: Weaknesses
• Disunity
– Local warlords fought Kuomintang for control
– Wars raged between 1912 and 1928
• Foreign imperialists
– Americans, Europeans, and Japanese
• Poor transportation
– 1914 – only 6,000 miles of railroad track
• 225,000 miles in the smaller United States
– Few decent roads
The Warlords
Li Yuanbong
Zhang Zuolin Yan Xishan
Feng Yuxiang
They fought for control of Beijing, to be recognised as the
official government of China . The effects were disastrous,
particularly on the peasants who were raped and pillaged
and forced to pay taxes up to 30 years in advance, for
their “protection and safety”.
Warlords (1913-28)
Chinese Warlords,
Yuan Shi-kai
Role of World War One
Foreign Imperialists
• Twenty-One Demands (1915)
– Japan attempted to make China a Japanese
– Action condemned and stopped by other leading
world powers
• World War I and the Treaty of Versailles
– China attempted to abolish concessions and
• Attempt failed
– China did not sign the Treaty of Versailles
– Japan gained mandate over most of Germany’s Asian
possessions and rights
World War I (1914-18)
• Beijing
– joined the
Allied forces
– sent laborers
to Europe
World War I & The Treaty of Versailles
• In 1917, China declares war on Germany
– China believed by fighting for the allies that at the end of
the war, territories controlled by Germany would be
returned to the people of China
– Treaty of Versailles gave Japan the former German
World War I (1914-18)
• Japan drove German forces out of Qingdao
• Paris Peace Conference in 1919
High expectations in Beijing
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
• All German privileges in
China’s Shandong Peninsula
were “transferred” to Japan
May Fourth Movement
May Fourth Movement
• On May 4, 1919 over
3,000 angry Chinese
students gathered in
Beijing to protest the
Treaty of Versailles
– Demonstrations spread
to other cities
throughout China
– Sun Yixian believes he
can regain power, but…
Student protests in Beijing
May 4th protests
Spread of the movement
Boycott Japanese products
demand release of arrested students
workers and merchants joined in
Shanghai, Nanjing, etc.
Paris, California, etc.
Tsinghua University students burn Japanese goods.
Growth of Communism
• Sun Yat-Sen appealed for Russian (Soviet) aid
following the Versailles Conference
– 1921-1925 – China received advisors, arms,
communist propaganda, and loans
– Russia revoked its imperialist rights in China
Chinese flag,
Nationalist Revolution
Sun Yat-Sen succeeded by Chiang Kai-shek
Communists expelled by Kuomintang
1926-1928 – war to control the warlords
Capital moved from Peiping (a.k.a. Peking,
today’s Beijing) to Nanking (Nanjing)
Presidential Palace under Kuomintang Government in Nanjing
Nationalist Revolution Under
Chiang Kai Shek or Jiang Jieshi
Chiang Kai Shek
His brother in law
and leader of the
new army Chiang
Kai Shek quickly
took command
and established
himself as leader
moving against the
War Lords in the
successful Great
The Nationalist Party
- The Nationalist Republic of
China was led by Jiang
Jieshi after the death of
Sun Yet-Tsen .
- hey improved
transportation, provided a
better education to more
people, and encouraged
- However, peasants and
workers lives were not
Jiang Jieshi Becomes President
of Nationalist China, 1928
(Chiang Kai-shek)
Jiang Jieshi & the Nationalists
• After Sun Yixian’s death
in 1925, Jiang Jieshi
becomes the head of
the Kuomintang
• Jiang
– Feared communism
– Supported by bankers
and businessmen
– Over saw a corrupt
China in 1924
Turn to Communism and Mao
Frustrated nationalism
• China’s previous efforts to borrow from the
West to achieve wealth and power all failed
– military hardware and related technologies
– economic institutions and organization
– science, scholarship, and education
– government, political processes and organizations
Frustrated nationalism
• China became weaker and poorer
– continuous civil wars between warlords
– Western privileges in China
• humiliated and abused in the world
Radical urban intellectuals
• multiplication of ism’s
The Kuomintang (KMT) is Split
• Right wing
– Business people
– Politicians
• Left wing
– Communists
– Intellectuals
– Radicals
– Students
New political parties
• Nationalist Party (GMD) was established
– Sun Yat-Sen died in 1925
– Chiang Kai-Shek was the military leader
• Communist Party was established in 1921
– Mao ZeDong was one of its founding members
The Communist Party in China
• Many intellectual Chinese turned against
Western Democracy (as you might imagine
they would considering how the democracies
treated China
• Communist Party
– Lead by former university asst. librarian Mao
– Influence by the Russian Revolutions of 1917
Mao Tse-Tung
Mao Zedong
• Student of Marxism
– However, he believed the communist
revolutions would not begin with
urban factory workers, but with
– “The force of the peasantry is like
that of the raging winds and driving
rain. It is rapidly increasing in
violence. No force can stand in its
way. The peasantry will tear apart all
nets which bind it…They will bury
beneath them all forces of
imperialism, militarism, corrupt
officialdom, village bosses and evil
Mao Zedong As a Young
(Mao Tse-tung)
Mao Zedong’s Life
• Mao was born in 1896 as the son of an
affluent peasant in Hunan province.
• After service in a provincial army in the 1911
revolution, Mao attended a teacher’s college.
• He then attended Beijing University and
worked in the library there.
• Mao was a leader of the Chinese Communist
Party since its founding in 1921.
• While most Chinese Communists believed that
urban workers were the group that would be
the most important supporters of the
revolution, Mao decided that peasants had
more revolutionary potential.
Land Reform
• Mao discovered even in the 1920s that the
Communists could win the support of the
peasants by taking away land from the rich
and sharing this with the poor.
• Mao learned how to get the vast majority of
peasants on his side by concentrating the
confiscations on a small minority of wealthy
Civil War in China
Civil War in China
• 1927-1932 and 1933-1937 – war between
Communists and Nationalists
• Communists – Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong)
• Nationalists – Chiang Kai-shek
• War halted 1932-1933 and 1937-1945 to fight
Japanese aggression
• Communists were victorious in 1949
• Nationalists retreated to Formosa (Taiwan)
• End of imperialism in China
– Hong Kong returned to China in 1997
Chiang Kai Shek Goes After
The success of the Northern Expedition surprised everyone as many of the
Warlords were defeated or made peace with the GMD.
The march to Shanghai became a triumphal parade but left Chiang with a
problem. He did not want to share power with his Communist allies, preferring
the capitalist way of development which would ensure close ties with the USA.
He decided therefore to end the United Front which had been so successful in
defeating the Warlords and to eliminate his communist allies. A bloody purge of
the communists followed in Shanghai and in Guangzhou.
The massacre was successful and left Chiang free to march on Beijing and
establish himself as China’s first strong ruler since 1911. He would be in a
position to carry out Sun Yat Sen’s programme of modernisation of a united
Death in
Death in
Chinese Civil War
• Jiang Jieshi starts a campaign against communists
– Has troops and armed gangs kill members of the
Communist Party and union members on the city streets
of Shanghai
• Nearly wipes out all members of the Communist Party
• In 1928 the US and Britain recognize Jiang Jieshi as
president of China
– The Soviet Union does not due to persecution of
Communist Party in China
China soon came to
know him as the ruler
of the country. He
liked to be called the
Genralissimo. He was
able to modernise
China as the electric
cables for street cars
shown in this picture
Generally cities,
particularly Shanghai,
made great progress,
even in the harsh
economic climate of
the 1930’s Great
Civil War
• The Nationalist Party and the
Communist Party had many
clashes over the years.
• In 1933 Mao Zedong led his
followers, over 600,000
people, over 6,000 miles into
the mountains to avoid
capture by the nationalist.
This is called The Long
Mao With His Children,
Chinese Civil War
• Mao forms the Red Army by recruiting
– Established themselves in the countryside of
south-central China
– Trained Red Army in guerilla warfare with help
from Soviet Union
• Jiang sends Nationalists soldiers after them,
but can’t completely wipe them out due to
guerilla warfare
The Long March
Chinese Civil War
• The Long March
– Jiang sends 700,000 men after Communists and
surrounds them
– 100,000 Communists flee and begin a 6,000 milejourney (The Long March)
• Tens of thousands die due to
– Starvation
– Battle wounds
– Exposure to the cold
– Mao and 8,000 survivors take shelter in the caves
of northwestern China.
Long March
• Mao led a Communist area in Jiangxi Province
in 1934, but attacks by the Kuomintang
(Nationalist Party) government army forced
them to undergo the “Long March” lasting
over a year and covering 3700 miles to a new,
safer area to the north in Shanxi Province.
The Long March
The Long March
The Long March
The Long March
“Down with the Imperialism”
Red Army Propaganda Painting from the Long March
Red Army soldiers marching part of the 6,000 miles
Luding Bridge
Red Army troops crossing the snowy mountains
Cave dwellings in Shaanxi
Mao on the Long March
Communist leader addresses the survivors of the Long March
Mao’s Long March Poem
The Red Army fears not the trials of the March,
Holding light ten thousand crags and torrents.
The Five Ridges wind like gentle ripples
And the majestic Wumeng roll by, globules of clay.
Warm the steep cliffs lapped by the waters of Golden
Cold the iron chains spanning the Tatu River.
Minshan's thousand li of snow joyously crossed,
The three Armies march on, each face glowing.
The Long March
• Ended December 1935, after 368 days, travelling
12,500 km
• Less than 1/20 of those who set off survived
• March ended in Wayabao
• Red Army impressed peasants in areas that it passed
• Mao declared it sowed the seeds revolution:
• “The Long March is a manifesto. It has proclaimed to the
world that the Red Army is an army of heroes, while the
imperialists and their running dogs, Chiang Kai-shek and
his like, are impotent.”
Survivors of the March
Yanan Soviet
The Yanan Soviet
• Chiang Kai Shek forced communists
into Yanan, events with Japan stalled
• Communists needed create strategy
• Problem of land reform
Yan’an, 1935-1948
• For over a decade, Mao and the Chinese Communist
leadership operated from Yan’an in the north of
• Land reform was carried out in Yan’an.
• During most of this time, the Communists were
fighting against both the KMT and the Japanese.
• The Communists and the KMT competed in terms of
which best represented the national interests of
China against the Japanese.
The Manchurian Incident
The Invasion of Manchuria
September 19, 1931: two artillery pieces installed at the Mukden officers' club opened up on the
Chinese garrison nearby.
– response to the alleged Chinese attack on the railway.
Zhang Xueliang's small air force was destroyed: 500 Japanese troops attacked aprox. 7000 Chinese
Japanese had occupied Mukden at the cost of 500 Chinese and only 2 Japanese lives.
19 September, Mukden was declared secure.
aircraft from the Chosen Army were landing at Mukden airport.
Zhang Xueliang, under implicit instructions from Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist Government to stick
to a nonresistance policy,
– It had already urged his men not put up a fight, and to store away any weapons in case the
Japanese invaded.
Therefore, the Japanese soldiers continued to occupy and garrison the major cities of Changchun,
Antung, and their surrounding areas with minimal difficulty.
November: Ma Zhanshan, the acting governor of Heilongjiang, began resistance with his
provincial arm.
January: Generals Ting Chao and Li Du with their local Jilin provincial forces.
Within 5 months of the Mukden Incident, the Imperial Japanese Army had overrun all major
towns and cities in the provinces of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang.
Zhang Xuwliang
Zhang Xuwliang was Born on June 3, 1901 Zhang
Xuwliang, also known as the “Young Marshal“, was the
ruler of Manchuria during the Manchurian Incident.
It was troops under his rule that were blamed for blowing
up the railway.
He spent 50 years under house arrest for helping start
another incident called the X’ian incident but was
referred as a hero for this.
Instead of fighting the Japanese he surprised them instead
by retreating his troops when they invaded.
Seishiro Itagaki
Seishiro was ItagakiBorn on January 21, 1885, Seishiro Itagaki was a
general of the Imperial Japanese Army during WII.
He was born into a samurai class family and graduated from the Imperial
Japanese Army Academy on 1904
On 1931 he became the chief of the Intelligent Section of the Kwantung
This was one of the reasons why he was chosen to help plan the
Manchurian Incident
Another one would be because he was a military advisor for Manchukuo
which was a puppet state for Manchuria.
This allowed him to have access to all the parts of Manchuria including
the railways.
• Different opinions still exist as to who blew up the Japanese
railroad at Mukden.
• Strong evidence points to young officers of the Japanese
Kwantung Army having conspired to cause the blast, with or
without direct orders from Tokyo.
• Post-war investigations also stated that the original bomb
planted by the Japanese failed to explode and a replacement
had to be planted.
• The resulting explosion enabled the Japanese Kwantung Army
to accomplish their goal of invading Manchuria and the
subsequent establishment of the puppet state of Manchukuo.
The Japanese Factor
1931 Japanese invaded Manchuria
1933 Japanese spreading influence
GMD in difficult situation
CCP capitalised on this
Chinese Civil War: Japanese Invasion
• Time Out!!!
– The Civil War between the
Nationalists and Red armies is
• By 1937 Japan invades all of
• Nationalists and Communists
unite to repel Japanese invasion
Japanese troops entering Shenyang
The Japanese posed an
even bigger
Manchuria and putting
Pu Yi on the throne as a
puppet. After 1937 they
invaded and conquered
the rich coastal plains
and cities of China in a
brilliantly successful
but brutal campaign,
culminating in the
massacre at Nanjing
where 300,000 civilians
were slaughtered in an
orgy of rape, pillage and
It then became Chiang Kai Shek’s
turn to flee to the interior of
China and resist as best he could
in Chung king until the
Americans arrived with help.
refugees flee
to the interior
The unlucky
remain in
….to await their fate
Japanese Aggression
• Japan was a threat to China – 1894-1941
• 1937 – Japanese invasion
– Japanese took control of north and areas along
the coast
– Rape of Nanking
– Chinese Communists and Nationalists
• Intermittently were at peace as they united to fight
against the Japanese
• Guerrilla and scorched earth tactics
• Received American aid against the Japanese
The Sino-Japanese War
• Japanese launched full invasion 1937
• Nationalists lost credibility by trading
with Japanese occupiers
• Nationalist forces almost destroyed
the communist New Fourth Army in
Japanese Aggression, 1931
- 1945
Victims of the Japanese
bombing of Shanghai.
Japanese Soldiers March into Nanking
December 9, 1937
The Japanese Invasion, 1937
Remains of Chinese Children Bayoneted
by Japanese Soldiers
Japanese Bayonet
Beheadings Took Place
in Public!
Chinese Prisoners Were
Beheaded & Displayed
UNIT 731: Bio-Chemical
UNIT 731: Live Human
Reluctant and distrustful allies, Chiang and Mao
By 1941 the world was at war and China found a great ally
in America who sent men and huge quantities of supplies.
America also tried to bring the ever distrustful Nationalists
and Communists together.
Chiang Kai Shek with “vinegar Joe” Stillwell
Role of World War Two
World War II
• U.S. interest in China increased after Japanese
attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941
• Cairo Conference (1943)
– Chiang Kai-shek met with Allied leaders
– Discussed war in eastern Asia
• Westerners gave up imperialist rights in China
• U.S. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 repealed in
The Americans tried hard to persuade the Communists to
work with Chiang.
But with
the Civil
War (194649) began
again. Here
a suspected
is lead off
Yan’an, 2
• At the end of the Second World War, the
Russians moved into Manchuria against the
Japanese and were able to share some
weapons with the Chinese Communists.
• Stalin urged Mao to ally with Chiang Kai-shek
rather than to fight him.
It’s time for the
Foreign Devils to go
home. They had
started the turmoil
and the fall of the
Empire a 100 years
before after the
first Opium War.
Here they are seen
escaping Shanghai
as refugees from
the advancing Red
Army, the People’s
Liberation Army.
There would be no
more unequal
The Communists had the best leaders, the best general Zhu
De and the best tactics. America became disillusioned with
the corruption of Chiang’s regime and withdrew support.
Popular support for the communists among the peasants
proved decisive and Chiang fled to Taiwan to set up his
Republic of China.
The People’s Republic of China is declared. The Chinese
have their first strong government for over a century.
Communist Victory
Communist Victory, 1949
• Due to corruption and inefficiency among the
KMT leadership, the Communists took power
in mainland China in October, 1949.
• The KMT leaders retreated to the island of
• Now Mao was in charge of the whole country.
Communists in Control – 1949
• Communists and Nationalists resumed civil war
following World War II
• Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist government wasted
foreign economic aid
• Many Kuomintang deserted to Communists
• Manchuria – taken over by Communists in 1948
• December, 1949 -- Communists in control
• Chiang Kai-shek and Nationalists retreated to
Formosa (Taiwan)
Taiwan: The Republic
of China
Jiang Jieshu (18871975)
(Chiang Kai-shek)
Madame Jiang Jieshu
Republic of China (Taiwan)
Jiang and Nationalists:
• Establish Republic of China
• Violently repress Taiwanese
• Govern as if they were CHINA
• Enact land reform (no longer tied to Gentry)
• Defended by US, 7th Fleet
• Engage in business revolution
• Brilliantly successful economy
• Nationalist Dictatorship
• Holds seat at UN as “CHINA”
Republic of China (Taiwan)
Jiang Kaishek (Jishi) dies in 1984
• Jiang Ching Kuo (son takes over)
• Begins democratic reforms
• Dies 1988
• Real Democratic Elections in 1988
Tensions between Taiwan and China have been very tense and
continue to be tense at times.
Taiwan today is economically advanced, wealthy and democratic
society Officially still a province of China, but functioning
as a separate nation