AP World History Final Exam Review Guide Chapter 11: The Aztec-Inca Empires (pp. 244-264) 1. Which group of people had the highest social status in all Mesoamerican civilizations? 2. How did the Aztecs view the cultural achievements of the Toltecs? 3. The Aztecs awaited the appearance of an eagle landing on a cactus with a serpent in its mouth. What would happen when this event occurred? 4. The central figure of the cult of human sacrifice and the most sacred deity of the Aztecs was? 5. How did the Aztecs view history? 6. What was the impact of expansion and conquest on the Aztec social system? 7. What was the nature of the Aztec economy? 8. While the position of Aztec women in many ways paralleled that of women in other civilizations at a similar stage of development, what was the significant difference between the lives of women in Mesoamerica and in the Mediterranean world? 9. What was the principal reason for Inca expansion and conquest? 10. The religious practice most closely associated with the state and the person of the Inca was the cult of? 11. The modern image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole and the state regulated the distribution of resources on the basis of need is referred to as? 12. In terms of the integration of a centralized empire, how did the Incas and Aztecs compare? Chapter 12: The Tang-Song Empires (pp. 266-286) 13. What was the primary reform enacted by the first Sui emperor? 14. What led to the downfall of the Sui dynasty? 15. What made possible the rapid revival of the empire under the T’ang? 16. Who was the title jinshi reserved for? 17. What impact did the T’ang repression of the Buddhists have on Confucianism? 18. What was the attitude of the T’ang emperors towards the Confucian scholar-gentry? 19. What helped create the high level of Chinese literacy, especially during the Song era? 20. How did foot binding diminish the independence of Chinese women by the end of the Song era? Chapter 13: The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, Vietnam (pp. 290-313) 21. What was the central purpose of the reforms of 646 in Japan? 22. What was the military organization of the Heian government in Japan? 23. What appears to have been the primary concerns at the imperial Japanese court in Heian? 24. What was the nature of warfare among the bushi? 25. What was the status of women during the era of the daimyos? 26. During the period of the warring daimyos, what led to a revival of Chinese influence on the cultural level? 27. What was the nature of Korean society? 28. What factor(s) were critical in the failure of the Chinese to conquer or assimilate the Vietnamese? Chapter 14: The Mongols (pp. 314-332) 29. How were Mongol leaders chosen? 30. What tactic on the battlefield was most often used by Chinggis Khan’s forces? 31. What was the religious policy of the Mongol empire under Chinggis Khan? 32. What were some positive aspects of Chinggis Khan’s imperial rule? 33. What was the social impact of the Mongol conquest of Russia? 34. What was the most significant impact of the period of Mongol rule on Russia? 35. Which two “low-status” groups under the Confucian system benefited under the Yuan? 36. What was the status of Mongolian women during the Yuan dynasty? 37. What significant impact did the Mongol conquests have on the Islamic heartland? 38. Why didn’t the Mongols pursue the conquest of Western Europe? Chapter 15: The Changing Balance of World Power (pp. 336-349) 39. What change in Islam ended their postclassical age and began a new era? 40. What was the innovation launched by the Ming dynasty? 41. Why did the Chinese abandon the commercial voyages of the Zheng He expeditions? 42. In comparison to medieval culture, Renaissance culture was more interested in what? 43. What was the major barrier to western European expansion prior to the 15th century? 44. What was unique about the development of states on the Iberian Peninsula? Chapter 18: The Rise of Russia (pp. 400-413) 45. What was the state of the Russian economy immediately after the expulsion of the Mongols in the 15th century? 46. Why did Russian expansion focus on central Asia? 47. What was the impact of early Russian expansion on central Asia? 48. What was the main purpose of Peter the Great’s policy of economic development? 49. Politically, what aspects of Western culture did Peter the Great emulate in Russia? 50. What was the limitation of Peter the Great’s policies of cultural Westernization? 51. What was Catherine the Great’s attitude toward the program of Westernization? 52. What was one of the primary differences between the social organization of the West and Russia in the 17th and 18th centuries? Chapter 26: Civilizations in Crisis (pp. 602-623) 53. In the later 1700s what power became the main threat to Ottoman survival? 54. How, if at all, did the status of women improve as a result of the Tanzimat reforms? 55. Which group suffered as a result of the Tanzimat reforms? 56. What was the relationship between the Young Turks and the Arabs of the Ottoman Empire after the 1908 coup? 57. What were the causes, and results, of the semi-Christian rebellion that broke out in southern China in the 1850s? 58. What was the political and social position of the Manchu rulers at the end of the 19th century? 59. In what area did the Manchus attempt to take strong measures of reform? 60. By the beginning of the 19th century, what were the signs of Qing (Manchu) dynastic decline?