Chapter 15 Government at Work: The Bureaucracy Zach Cheplak, Kyle Dill, Erin Eklund AP Gov 7th Hour Section 1 The Federal Bureaucracy Section 1: The Federal Bureaucracy Vocab Bureaucracy Bureaucrat Administration Staff agency Line agency The Federal Bureaucracy A bureaucracy is a large, complex administrative structure that handles the everyday business of an organization. It includes, but is not exclusive to the U.S. Federal Government, the largest bureaucracy in the U.S., various corporations, the militaries, and each separate city government. The Three Parts of a Bureaucracy Hierarchical Authority – A chain of command. Job Specialization – Each worker, or bureaucrat, has a specific job. Formalized Rules – A series of precise rules and regulations that establish an exact procedure. *Bureaucrats aren’t elected Majority of the bureaucracy is in executive branch The President is the chief administrator of the Federal Government as declared by the Constitution. The Constitution makes only a few small references to the administrative process. Article II gives the President to appoint Ambassadors, and other public Ministers and Consuls. Titles Agency and Administration – Any governmental body; A major unit headed by a single administrator who is of nearcabinet status. Commission – Agencies that regulate business activities. Corporation and Authority – Agencies that conduct business-like activities. Bureau, service, office, branch, Agency Make-up Staff Agencies – Supports chief executive and others by offering advice and assistance in management. Line agencies – Actually perform the tasks for the organization. Section 2 The Executive Office Section 2: The Executive Office of the President Vocab Executive Office of the President Federal budget Fiscal year Domestic affairs The Executive Office of the President (EOP) The unit of several different agencies, consisting of the President’s closest advisors. First founded by Congress in 1939, and restructured during every administration since then. The White House Office The nucleus of the executive branch. Includes the President’s key political and personal staff. The Chief of Staff – Supervises all of the procedures at the White House. The President has many different aides which advise him on all the important areas of government *Over 400 Staff Members The National Security Council A staff agency that gathers at the President’s request, and advises him on various government matters. Members include the Vice President, the CIA director, the secretary of state, the secretary of defense, and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Other Offices The Office of Homeland Security The Office of Management and Budget The Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives The Office of National Drug Control Policy The Council of Economic Advisers Many More Section 3 The Executive Departments Section 3: The Executive Departments Vocab Executive departments Secretary Attorney general The Executive Departments Also known as the Cabinet departments, these are the traditional units of federal administration, each of which is built around a extensive area of activity. At first only three departments existed, the State, Treasury, and War Departments. Officers and Staff A secretary leads each department with the exception of the Department of Justice which is headed by the attorney general. The leaders of each department connect their department to the President. All of these officials are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The Fifteen Executive Departments Include the Departments of State, Treasury, Defense, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, Education, Veterans Affairs, and Homeland Security. The Cabinet The Cabinet was created in 1789 when the secretaries of state, war, treasury, and the attorney general met and advised President George Washington, who from then on frequently sought their advice. Now the Cabinet consists of all the heads of the 15 different Executive Departments, the Vice President, and whichever other officials the President wants to add. Choosing the Cabinet All the heads of the executive departments are appointed by the President and Confirmed by the Senate. The Cabinet member choices are made based upon the person’s qualifications, experience, and are usually influenced by the President’s political party, and current social issues. Role of the Cabinet The cabinet members’ job is to manage their department and to advise the President. The elimination of the Cabinet has never been recommended, but some President’s have chosen to seek advice from other groups. Section 4 Independent Agencies Section 4: Independent agencies Vocab Independent agencies Independent executive agencies Independent regulatory commissions Quasi-legislative Quasi-judicial Quasi-modo Government Corporation Independent Agencies There are about 150 independent agencies. The agencies are set up mainly because they do not fit well within any department. They are independent because of the peculiar and sensitive nature of their functions. Independent Executive Agencies GSA- General Services Administrationconstructs and operates public buildings and their purchase and distribution of supplies and equipment NASA- National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Most independent executive agencies have few employees, small budgets, and rarely attract any attention. Independent regulatory Commissions Structured for independence. – Each headed by a board made up of five to seven members appointed by the President with Senate consent. – No more than a bare majority of the members may belong to the same political party. The Government Corporations The first government corporation that was established was the Bank of the United States in 1791. FDIC- Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: insures bank deposits. Export-Import bank of the United States: makes loans to help the export and sale of American goods abroad. *Over 50 Corporations today Government v. Private Corporations Government Corporations produce income that is put back into business. The Government decides the purpose for which the public agencies exist and the functions they can perform. – Public officers and employees – top officers selected by the President with Senate approval. Section 5 The Civil Service Section 5: The Civil Service Vocab Civil service Spoils system Patronage Register Bipartisan Development of the Civil Service The Beginnings – In 1789 George Washington appointed mainly Federalists to be the members of the government. – In 1801 Thomas Jefferson dismissed hundreds of the Federalists and replaced them with Democratic-Republicans. Movement to Reform In 1881, President James Garfield was shot by a disappointed officeseeker, Charles J. Guiteau. The nation then passed the Pendleton Act-the civil Service Act of 1883. The Pendleton Act Its main purpose was to make merit-the quality of one’s work-the basis for hiring, promotion, and other personnel actions in the federal work force. Today nearly 90 percent of the people who work for the executive branch agencies are covered by the merit system. Civil Service Today The Office of Personnel Management – The Office of Personnel Management, created in 1978, is the Federal Government’s central personnel agency. Pay and Benefits – Congress sets the pay and other job conditions for everyone who words for the Federal Government, except for employees of the United States Postal Service. Political Activities Hatch act of 1939 – allows federal workers to vote in elections, but forbids them to take part in partisan political activities. The Federal Employees Political Activities Act of 1993 – allows a federal worker to vote, help register new voters, contribute money to candidates and parties, participate in campaigns, and hold office in a political party. This is the end.