The Russian Revolution The History of Russia • The Romanov Dynasty – Peter the Great • Westernization of Russia – Tsar Alexander II • He made some social reforms by freeing the serfs • Caused a growing gap between the rich and poor • Class tensions increased – Tsar Nicholas II • Revolutionaries stir the pot of discontent – Vladimir Lenin – The Bolshevik’s Causes of the Russian Revolution • The Russo-Japanese War 1905 – Imperialism • Revolution of 1905 – Bloody Sunday • Landless Peasants • Incompetence of Tsar Nicholas II – Rasputin • Military defeats in World War I – High Casualties – Fuel and Food Shortages Russia Begins to Crumble • By 1917 , disasters on the battlefield combined with fuel and food shortages on the home front brought the monarchy to collapse. • On the advice of military and political leaders, the tsar abdicated. • A provisional government is established and continued to fight WWI November Revolution Brings Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks to Power • Revolutionary Socialist, influenced by the works of Karl Marx. • In 1917 the Bolsheviks overthrew the provisional government and took control of Russia. • Withdraws Russia from WWI to focus on troubles at home. • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk giving a huge chunk of land and population to Germany in exchange for peace. • Civil War between the Reds and Whites Building the Communist State of the Soviet Union • In 1922, Lenin’s communist government united much of the old Russian empire into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), or Soviet Union. • Bolsheviks rename themselves the Communist Party. • Adopted the New Economic Policy (NEP). These included: – Farmers could now sell their surplus – Individuals could buy and sell things for profit – Some private business ownership was allowed Lenin’s Death and Successors • In 1924 Lenin Dies • Struggle of leadership of the U.S.S.R. – Trotsky – Stalin • Trotsky exiled to Mexico – Murdered by a axe to the head • Stalin emerges as new Russian leader. • Under Stalin’s totalitarian rule, the Soviet Union grew to become one of the worlds super power. Let’s Review 1. The major leader of the Bolsheviks and first leader of the USSR was ____________. 2. The man who succeeded Lenin as leader of the USSR was _________. 3. Lenin believed that a small group could run Russia in the interest of the people (working class). This was called the "Dictatorship of the ___________“ 4. Name one event that weakened Russia's royal family prior to the revolution. 5. Russia's first revolution replaced the tsar. The provisional government that ruled next failed mainly because it continued Russia's participation in ______.