CHAPTER 2 SEC. 1 SPAIN’S EMPIRE IN THE AMERICAS Mr. Clifford WHAT IS THE MAIN IDEA OF THE SECTION • Throughout the 1500s and 1600s, the Spanish conquered Central and portions of North America. • WHY DOES THIS INFORMATION MATTER NOW? -Spanish language, religion, and architecture continues to influence the Americas. Chapter 2 Section 1 Vocabulary • • • • • • • • Hernándo Cortés conquistador New Spain mestizo encomienda Juan Ponce de León New Mexico Popé’s Rebellion Spanish Claim a New Empire • Conquistadores: specially trained Spanish soldiers who colonized the New World in search for gold & silver. • With the help of superior weapons, native allies, & disease the Spanish dominated Native American populations. The conquest produced enough gold and resources to make Spain the largest and strongest empire on earth. Cortes Subdues the Aztecs • Hernando Cortes: a gifted Spanish diplomat & military leader • Cortes would force Aztecs (present day Mexico) to mine for gold an silver. • In 1520 CE, Aztecs rebelled against the Spanish and killed their leader Montezuma for allowing Cortes to take over their empire. • Aztecs were devastated by small pox which was brought by the Spanish. • The Spanish finally conquered the Aztecs in 1521. Small Pox Small Pox Spanish Pattern of Conquest • Peninsulares: Spanish men who traveled to New Spain to settle and profit off the land. • Spanish men would marry Native American women and eventually, the entire society was mestizo. • Mestizo: mixed race (European, Native American, and eventually African) Spanish Pattern of Conquest • Encomienda System: oppressed the Native American by forcing them to work within a brutal labor system known as • Native Americans were forced to farm, ranch, or mine for Spanish landlords. HOW TO CONQUER FOREIGN LANDS & NATIVE PEOPLES (THE SPANISH WAY) 1.) Committed expedition leader who is a good diplomat 2.) Strong military (conquistadors) and superior weapons to overtake native peoples 3.) Hidalgo’s and peninsulares to: - settle land and create plantations - marry Native American women and create a mestizo population. (Eventually, the population will all have Spanish blood) 4.) Impose ‘encomienda’ labor system to develop and harvest cash crops. 5.) Force Spanish culture and religion (Roman Catholicism) on Native America society. Spain Enters Golden Age • 16th century: Spain was the most powerful nation in the world. Eventually, massive inflation would hit Spain. The Conquistadores Push North Spanish began funding more expeditions in search of land and gold. • Exploring Florida: • Spanish explorer Juan Ponce De Leon discovered Florida. • Settling the Southwest • Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado led the first Spanish expedition into what is now Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. • Spanish priests and explorers followed Coronado’s trail and established congregacion’s. Resistance to the Spanish • Conflict in New Mexico • Spanish settlers/priests attempted to convert Native Americans into Roman Catholics. • Spanish soldiers and priests destroyed sacred objects of Native Americans and punished Native Americans who did not convert. • Natives rebelled against Spanish attempts to transform their lives and beliefs. Pope’s Rebellion - Successful Native American rebellion against Spanish priests and settlers.