Unit 1. Matter and Change

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Unit 1.
Matter and
Change
Do Now:
 What
are the State of Matter?
Objectives:
 Define the term “chemistry”
 Describe the difference branches of Chemistry.
 Describe the difference between a physical change and a
chemical change and give several examples of each.
 Describe different characteristics of the three states matter.
 Classify a mixture as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
 Classify a pure substance as an element or a compound.
Chapter 1
Section 1
Chemistry is a Physical Science

Chemistry is the study of matter and the
changes that it undergoes.
Biological
Science
Chemistry
Physical
Sciences
Chemistry is central to all sciences.
Both living and non living matter have
a chemical structure.
Chemistry deals with:
1. What is material made of?
2. What is the makeup and internal
arrangement of the atoms?
3. How does it behave when heated,
cooled or mixed with other materials?
Branches of Chemistry
Organic chemistry – the study of carbon
containing compounds.
Inorganic chemistry – the study of
substances that do not contain carbon
(metals and gases).
Physical chemistry – the study of the
properties and changes of matter and their
relation to energy.
Analytical chemistry –the identification of the
components and composition of materials.
Biochemistry – the study of the processes
occurring in living systems.
Types of Research

Basic Research - carried out for the
sake of increasing knowledge.

Most basic research is carried out in
universities.

Research is normally published in
scientific journals.
Types of Research

Applied Research - carried out to solve
a problem.

Research is carried out by companies to
make a profit.

Usually short term goals set by the
company.
Summary
1) Define the word chemistry.
2) Name the five branches of
chemistry.
3) Define basic and applied
research.
STATE OF MATTER
States of Matter
 There
are Four state of matter
 A. Solid
 B. Liquid
 C. Gas
 D. Plasma
 State
of matter depends on Kinetic
Energy between the particles
A. Kinetic Molecular Theory
 KMT
 Particles
 The
of matter are always in motion.
kinetic energy (speed) of these
particles increases as temperature
increases.
Four States of Matter
 A.
Solids
 very
low KE - particles vibrate
but can’t move around
 fixed
shape
 fixed
volume
Four States of Matter
 B.
Liquids
 low
KE - particles can move
around but are still close
together
 variable
 fixed
shape
volume
Four States of Matter
 C.
Gases
 high
KE - particles can
separate and move
throughout container
 variable
shape
 variable
volume
Matter and its Properties
 It’s
Classified!
Objective
 Distinguish



between:
intensive and extensive properties
Physical & chemical changes/properties
Classify matter
Properties & Changes in Matter
 Extensive
 Physical
vs. Intensive
vs. Chemical
A. Extensive vs. Intensive
 Extensive
Property

depends on the amount of matter present

ex,.-
 Intensive
Property

depends on the identity of substance, not
the amount

Ex.-
A. Extensive vs. Intensive



Extensive Property

depends on the amount of matter present

ex,.- Volume, mass, Energy
Intensive Property

depends on the identity of substance, not the
amount

Ex.- melting point, boiling point, conduct
electricity or heat
WHAT ABOUT DENSITY??
A. Extensive vs. Intensive
 Examples:

boiling point

volume

mass

density

conductivity
A. Extensive vs. Intensive
 Examples:

boiling point…… intensive

Volume …. extensive

Mass ….. extensive

Density ….. intensive

Conductivity ….. intensive
PROPERTY
B. Physical vs. Chemical
 Physical

Property
can be observed without changing the
identity of the substance
 Chemical

Property
describes the ability of a substance to
undergo changes in identity
B. Physical vs. Chemical
Examples:
melting
point
physical
flammable
chemical
density
physical
magnetic
physical
tarnishes
chemical
in air
B. Physical vs. Chemical
Examples:
melting
point
physical
flammable
chemical
density
physical
magnetic
physical
tarnishes
chemical
in air
CHANGE
C. Physical vs. Chemical
 Physical
Change

changes the form of a substance without
changing its identity

properties remain the same
 Chemical
Change

changes the identity of a substance

products have different properties
B. Physical vs. Chemical
 Signs
of a Chemical Change
 change
in color or odor
 formation
of a gas
 formation
of a precipitate (solid)
 change
in light or heat
Properties and Changes in
Matter
In the example of burning of charcoal, carbon
and oxygen are the reactants in the combustion
reaction. Carbon dioxide is the product.
carbon + oxygen
C
+
O2
(reactants)
carbon dioxide
CO2
(product)
B. Physical vs. Chemical
 Examples:
rusting
iron
dissolving
in water
burning
a log
melting
ice
grinding
spices
C. Mixtures
 Examples:
mayonnaise
muddy
water
fog
saltwater
Italian
salad
dressing
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