The Civil Rights Movement People and Events Extra Credit Options Recap on Emmett Till HW: Read Background Essay of DBQ Packet and draw a T-chart comparing MLK and Malcolm X’s background. Objective Question: How did the Emmett Till murder and trial kick start the civil rights movement? The Emergence of the Civil Rights Movement Jim Crow Laws created “separate but equal” institutions for blacks and whites. Segregation enforced by law and vigilante justice “lynching.” Brown v. Board began the fight for desegregation. School Desegregation The KKK and White Citizen’s Councils promised “massive resistance” to desegregation. In 1957 nine black students attempted to integrate Central H.S. in Little Rock, AK The Gov. of AK, Orval Fabus, led resistance to the “Little Rock Nine.” School Desegregation Angry mobs surrounded Central H.S. when the nine students attempted to enter. President Eisenhower called out over 10,000 troops to restore order and protect the “Little Rock Nine.” In 1962, James Meredith was the first AfricanAmerican admitted to the University of Mississippi. The Montgomery Bus Boycott Schools were not the only battleground in the Civil Rights movement. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery Bus. The Montgomery Bus Boycott Parks was arrested for violating Jim Crow laws. Her arrest caused the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The boycott was organized by MLK and lasted for nearly a year. After a year, the city agreed to desegregate its busses. Martin Luther King, Jr. King was a minister in Montgomery, AL. He became the most prominent leader of the Civil Rights Movement King believed in using nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience in order to achieve the goals of the Civil Rights movement. The Sit-in Movement On February 1, 1960 4 black students walked into a Woolworth’s lunch counter and sat at the counter. They refused to leave until they were served. Others picked up on their example, and the sit-in demonstrations spread. Often these peaceful demonstrators were attacked and beaten. The SNCC was later created by these student activists in order to organize similar protests around the country. The Freedom Riders, 1961 To help speed desegregation, CORE sent Freedom Riders on a bus trip from D.C. to New Orleans. The Freedom Riders were arrested, beaten, and their busses were attacked. President Kennedy had to send federal marshals South to protect the Freedom Riders. Demonstrations in Birmingham, 1963 MLK and other leaders organized demonstrations for Birmingham, AL to protest segregation in that city. Police commissioner Eugene “Bull” Connor attempted to break up the demonstrations using violence. He used fire hoses and police dogs to attack demonstrators. The American public was outraged by the violence they witnessed. Demonstrations in Birmingham, 1963 During the protests MLK was arrested. While in jail he wrote a, “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” that stated the goals and methods of the movement. Eventually the demonstrations were successful in integrating Birmingham In September, 1963, the 16th St. Baptist Church, which was one of the headquarters for the demonstrations was bombed. Four young girls were killed. The March on Washington, 1963 Civil Rights leaders organized a protest march on D.C. They hoped to pressure the Kennedy administration to pass federal Civil Rights legislation. Over 250,000 protesters took part. The March on Washington, 1963 At the Washington protest, MLK gave his most famous speech, “I Have A Dream.” In his speech, King described a future America free of racism and discrimination. Partly as a result of this pressure, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Voter Registration Drives After passage of the Civil Rights Act, Civil Rights leaders turned their focus to voting rights. Literacy tests and poll taxes had been used to keep blacks from voting in the South. For example, in Selma, AL only 300/15,000 blacks had registered to vote. Voter Registration Drives King and other leaders organized a march from Selma to Montgomery to protest the denial of voting rights. King was arrested before the march, but it took place nonetheless. The marchers were attacked on the outskirts of Selma at the Edmund Pettis Bridge. Again white violence generated support for the Civil Rights movement. Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 after the Selma protests. Freedom Summer and Three Deaths Freedom Summer was an effort to register AfricanAmericans to vote in Mississippi. Three volunteers, James Chaney, Michael Goodman, and Andrew Schwerner were kidnapped and murdered. Three Deaths Cont. Because Goodman and Schwerner were white, their disappearances generated a lot of publicity in the North. The FBI got involved in the investigation. Eventually 10 men were indicted in their deaths, including members of local law enforcement and government. Seven were convicted and the other three were acquitted. Malcolm X African-American support for non-violent protest began to weaken in the face of continued white violence. Malcolm X, a black Muslim leader, advocated “Black Nationalism.” Malcolm X also advocated using violence in selfdefense. After a trip to Mecca, Malcolm became more moderate and broke with the Nation of Islam. Malcolm X was assassinated in February, 1965. Urban Race Riots Many African-Americans in northern cities felt little has changed in their conditions. Between 1954 and 1967 58 different cities experienced riots as blacks protested police brutality and the lack of opportunity. King Assassinated King was in Memphis, TN organizing sanitation workers to protest their treatment. On the morning of April 4, 1968, King was shot and killed. King’s death sparked riots in 125 cities and among American armed forces overseas. A Shift to Radicalism In the late 1960s, blacks became frustrated by the slow rate of change. Many began to advocate more militant action. Stokely Carmichael and other leaders began to call for black economic, political and social power. The Black Panthers were organized in an effort to confront the police and other government groups in an effort to gain equality. The Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement By 1974 over 75% of blacks attended integrated schools in the South. In 1950 only 13% of black students finished high school and 2.4% attended college. In 1982 those numbers were 58% and 12.4%. The African-American Civil Rights movement served as a model for other minority groups such as Native Americans, women, and Mexican-Americans.