Unit 6---Overview of City ESOL Program


Unit Six

Table of Contents

Unit 1: Parts of Speech

Unit 2: Phrases, Clauses, and Sentence


Unit 3: Simple & Progressive Verbs;

Gerunds & Infinitives

Unit 4: Perfect & Passive Verbs

Unit 5: Complex Sentences

Unit 6: Overview of City ESOL Program


Overview of ESOL Student Population


Overview of City ESOL Students

Generation 1.5

Generation 1.5

Born in U.S. or immigrated at a young age

Most (if not all) schooling in U.S.

Native-like speakers of English

Difficulty with academic language in all languages

Usually do not identify themselves as ESOL

Overview of City ESOL Students


Adult Immigrants & Refugees

May have no or limited education

Developing academic/study skills

Lack of abstract understanding of language

Gaps in background knowledge

Difficulty with social and academic language

Limited understanding of U.S. cultural norms and content

May have experienced trauma

Younger Immigrants

Blend of Generation 1.5 and Adult Immigrant issues

Some academic skills (educated) in all languages

Lacking English fluency and vocabulary

Generally motivated to learn English

Overview of City ESOL Students

International Student

International Students

Smallest number

In U.S. for a limited time

Financial resources available

High academic knowledge in all languages

Usually strong in reading and grammar

Usually more difficulty with spoken English

Language Issues

Connections between ideas are not clearly shown.

Possible Reason:

Language Background

Thought Differences (Kaplan, 1966)

Semitic Oriental Romance Russian

High Context vs. Low Context Culture

“…what remains instructive and useful is

Kaplan's insight that discourses across cultures differ not only in grammatical features, but also in generic and rhetorical patterns, in expectations between readers and writers.”

SDSU Japanese Student:

I don’t talk directly. This is the point I want to make, but I don’t go directly, I don’t make a statement exactly, I just go around it, then people misunderstood. I make, I make people confused because I didn’t go directly, I didn’t say the sentence, so, it happens then, so they ask me, is this what you want to say? Is that it? You know? Why can’t you assume? I expect people assume, people understand.


Typical college lecture:

What language and cultural difficulties might our different

ESOL populations have?

Generation 1.5

Immigrants & Refugees

International Students

Watch video

Global vs. Local Errors

Global: more serious errors that usually impede understanding.

Local: less serious errors that, while distracting, most often do not impede understanding.

Subject/verb agreement:

He attend college.

Articles: You can get that at store.


I have a lot of homeworks.


I’ll meet you on 3:00 today.

Word Form:

Writing under the pressure of time gives students several beneficial including the ability to think and organize fast.

Tip 1: Know Your Students

A lot of writing? Give writing diagnostic the first week

Questionnaire (for everybody!)

First language

Languages spoken

Level of education/Education experience

Previous English classes

Computer skills

Number of units currently taking

Number of hours working

Major/Career goals

Tip 2: Safe Environment

Community building activities

Get to know each other activities

Develop relationships to learn study skills

Discuss answers in pairs/groups first

Increased confidence

Participation boost

Instructor can listen and identify challenges

Tip 3: Be Careful About Your Speech

A. Speed and clarity

B. Word choice

C. Repetition

D. Clarification questions

A: Speed and Clarity

Talk slower than normal and enunciate

What did you get out of the reading?


the reading??

I’m confused!

B: Word Choice

Define academic terminology

Limit/Define slang and idiomatic expressions

Well, by no stretch of my imagination do I believe you've all come here to hear me lecture. But rather to ascertain the identity of the mystery math magician.

How do you stretch your imagination?



Transfer Career Center Presentation

A walk in the park

Game plan

Foot in the door

Bring to the table

Off the top of my head

Time to boogie

To put it in a nutshell

This is really key


Ed plan

General ed

Prep for the major

C: Repetition

Repeat, repeat, repeat… then repeat again… then have the student repeat back to you… then repeat again.

D: Clarification Questions

Ask specific questions


Does that make sense?

Do you understand?

I don’t want to ask again.

I’ll ask my sister what he means later.

D: Clarification Questions

Does that make sense?


Do you understand?


Do you see what I mean?



So how would you solve this problem?

Would this formula work?


How do you know that?

What is the main argument of this article?

Now explain why this theory doesn’t work?

Tip 4: Previewing




Discuss prior knowledge, context, and key vocabulary before lecture

State/show plan of lecture in introduction


Tip 5: Visual Support


Flow Charts

Key ideas/vocabulary on board


Page numbers on board

Tip 6: Vocabulary

ESOL students’ general academic and disciplinespecific language is often impoverished (Kinsella)

Focus on:

High-frequency/high utility academic words (e.g. consequence, issue, analyze


High-use disciplinary words (e.g. economy, metaphor, species )

“Big Idea” words that relate to lesson concepts (e.g. stereotype, outsourcing, fossil fuel )

How to Teach New Terms (Kinsella)

Step 1: Assess Knowledge

Choose 6-8 target words

Students rate knowledge

Rating Scale:

1. I don’t know it at all

2. I’ve seen it before

3. I know it and use it

4. I could teach it now

Target Word What I think it means









How to Teach New Terms

Step 2: Explain and Define

Pronounce the word, give an explanation using common language, and identify part of speech

Accurate is an adjective that means something is true, right, correct… The antonym, or a word with the opposite meaning, is inaccurate.

How to Teach New Terms

Step 3: Provide Examples

Movies and television shows don’t always contain accurate information about typical families in the

United States. Sometimes they are inaccurate. For example, critics have noted that The Cosby Show was not an accurate representation of African

American family life. It demonstrated white, middle class norms using African American actors.

How to Teach New Terms

Step 4: Deepen Understanding/Coach Use

Identify one movie or television show that gives an an

accurate or inaccurate account of a typical American family.

In my opinion, ______ is an accurate/inaccurate representation of a typical American family because…


Tip 7: Instructor Support Services

Personal invitation/accessibility

Non-traditional office hours (cafeteria)

Beginning of the semester assignment: E-mail instructor

Lecture Notes

Showing a variety of examples of student work

Pre-drop deadline progress feedback

Online support



Tip 8: School Support Services

ESOL Instructors

The English Center (C-226)

Hours: Mon-Thurs 9am-7pm and Fri 9am-3pm

Face-to-face and online

Have students bring assignment instructions

Copy of tutoring form in mailbox

Self paced grammar programs: Perfect Copy, Tense Buster, Skills Bank,

Focus on Grammar

Piloting one-unit grammar class (Eng 97)

Continuing Education

Open Entry/Open Exit

Morning/Afternoon/Evening Schedules

ESL and computer basics

Counseling/DSPS/Mental Health Services


What are one or two things from today’s workshop that you would like to apply this semester?

Do you have any questions?