Chapter 18 - The Fourth Amendment and National Security

Chapter 18 - The Fourth Amendment and
National Security
Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S. 468
Did this court apply the 4th amendment to
How did you make phone class in those days?
Were phone lines all private?
How might this have influenced the court?
Federal Communications Act of 1934
Makes it a crime for any person ‘‘to intercept and
divulge or publish the contents of wire and radio
Did the court apply this to federal agents?
Did the court apply it to national security?
Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967)
Did the Court find a constitutional right to phone
Would this apply to private persons?
What limits did the Omnibus Crime Control Bill of
1968 set on wiretapping?
 What if the phone company hears a suspicious
conversation as part of routine monitoring?
 Did the Bill address national security?
US v US District Court (Keith), 407 US 297
What is the underlying crime?
Was there foreign involvement?
What was the nature of the evidence gathering?
Was there a warrant?
How were the searches authorized?
The Government's Argument
Did the Omnibus Crime Control Bill control?
What language excluded this sort of crime?
What is government arguing that this clause
Does the court buy this?
What Does the Constitution Require?
What is the real question before the court?
 ‘‘Whether safeguards other than prior
authorization by a magistrate would satisfy the
Fourth Amendment in a situation involving the
national security. . . .’’
What is the argument that the AG is a substitute
for a warrant?
Court's View of National Security as an
History abundantly documents the tendency of
Government— however benevolent and benign its
motives—to view with suspicion those who most
fervently dispute its policies. Fourth Amendment
protections become the more necessary when the targets
of official surveillance may be those suspected of
unorthodoxy in their political beliefs. The danger to
political dissent is acute where the Government attempts
to act under so vague a concept as the power to protect
‘‘domestic security.’’
Why is domestic security more suspect?
Issues with Warrants
What if they are not prosecuting you - how do you
contest a search?
 How do you even know they are watching you?.
Why does the government not want to ask a judge to
approve a warrant?
 Are these legitimate concerns?
What does the court rule?
 Does the court leave the door open for statutory
modifications of the warrant requirement?
Title III (18U.S.C. §2518(1)(b)-(d) (2000))
Title an application for authorization to conduct
electronic surveillance contain detailed information about
the alleged criminal offense, the facilities and
communication sought to be intercepted, the identity of
the target (if known), the period of time sought for
surveillance, and an explanation of whether other
investigative methods have failed or why they are
unlikely to succeed or are too dangerous.
A court may issue an order for electronic surveillance
only if it finds probable cause that communications
related to the commission of a crime will be obtained
through the surveillance. Id. §2518(3)(b).
Domestic organizations with foreign objectives
Zweibon v.Mitchell, 516 F.2d 594 (DC Cir. 1975)
What is the group?
 Are they really domestic?
Is causing foreign policy problems a national
security issue?
Did the DC court require a warrant?
What about for wiretapping American citizens
living in Berlin?