Elements and Principles of Design What are they? Elements The elements of design are all of the most basic structural parts of art or design. Form, shape and space These are things we take for granted: Pattern Point Line Movement Color Texture Value Point The most basic element. Combining points can create every other element listed. Shapes, textures, lines, etc. Line Line creates direction for the eye to follow. It also is created by natural things like trees, or the edge of a shape, etc. Form, Shape, Space Form and shape are area’s of masses that essentially define an object in space. This can be 2-D or 3-D. Movement Visual movement (using lines, points, etc.) is used to direct viewers through their work, typically to a focal area. You can see this in photographs as well as artwork. Color The use of color must be balanced. Typically the best choices are to choose colors Opposite one another on the color wheel. They contrast completely and look the best together Texture Texture can be achieved through repeated lines or dots, etc. You can make scales, bricks, fur, wood through using these basic elements. Pattern – Geometric, Organic, Abstract Combination of elements or shapes repeated in a recurring and regular arrangement. (Recurring – repeating indefinitely. Regular – having equal times or spaces between. Symmetrical, happening frequently.) Value This is the lightness or darkness of a color. Principles The principles of design describe the ways that artists use the elements of art in an actual work of art. Pattern Contrast Emphasis Balance Proportion/Scale Harmony Rhythm/Movement Contrast – Color, texture, value This is when we juxtapose things that are completely opposite one another. Emphasis An area of interest that first attracts a viewers attention. Balance Visual equilibrium. Can be a balance of colors, shapes, lines, etc. Three types: Symmetrical, Asymmetrical, Radial. Proportion/Scale Proportion is the relationship of two or more elements in a piece of art, and how they compare with one another with respect to size, number, etc. and how this relationship affects the whole image. Harmony Harmony happens when you use the effective proportions in a design and reduce randomness. Its typically seen in grouping similar things together to create a coherent whole. Lack of Unity/Harmony Unity/Harmony Rhythm/Movement Repeating elements like lines and points to direct the eye through the artwork. There are five kinds: Regular Progressive Flowing Random Alternating Regular/Flowing/Progressive Random Pebbles at the beach, Snowflakes, Traffic jams. All seem un-orderly up close, but from far away create order. Alternating Two or more elements are alternated. Like black and white squares on a checkers board. Must create a regular rhythm though.