Chapter 7 Review - Guthrie Public Schools

Lesson 1
• 1. The United States was more sympathetic to the Allies
because of the long history between the U.S. and Great
Britain. The common culture of these two nations and
the economic relationships between them made the U.S.
more sympathetic to the Allies.
2. British propaganda, unrestricted German submarine
warfare, and the sinking of the Lusitania had helped
sway American public opinion toward the Allies.
Germany sent the Zimmermann telegram, which tried to
bring Mexico into the war by promising the return of “lost
territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.” Finally,
Germany’s resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare
convinced the United States to declare war.
Lesson 2
• 3. Some women took jobs traditionally held by men or
worked in factories. Others enlisted in the military to
provide clerical support. Many African Americans
migrated north to support the war effort by working in
factories. Everyone worked to ration food and fuel to
support the needs of the troops overseas.
4. The government passed the Espionage and Sedition
Acts, making it illegal to print information opposed to the
war or speak against the war publicly, which curtailed
First Amendment freedoms. The Supreme Court
nevertheless upheld these laws under the “clear and
present danger” test.
Lesson 3
• 5. Many new military technologies debuted
during World War I, such as artillery, poison gas,
armored tanks, and military aircraft. The
weapons changed the nature of modern warfare.
6. The arrival of U.S. troops made many
Germans believe that they would lose the war,
damaging their morale. U.S. forces helped
reinforce Allied forces damaged by casualties,
and the U.S. troops led a successful wide-scale
attack in the Battle of the Argonne to push back
the Germans.
Lesson 4
• 7. The end of World War I brought inflation, layoffs, and
lowered wages. Unionized workers wanted higher wages
and shorter working hours, but businesses resisted.
Returning veterans could not find work and blamed
African Americans. These circumstances led to labor and
racial tensions.
8. Americans had long associated communism with
unionization efforts, and the Russian Revolution seemed
to justify fears. Violence at strikes and bombings further
encouraged the Red Scare, as did the actions of
Attorney General Palmer.
21st Century Skills
• 10. The Selective Service Act required men to sign up for the draft,
which ensured a large pool of troops. A lottery then determined
which men came before their local draft boards, and these boards
decided whom to conscript.
11. The new weapons were deadly on a previously unknown scale.
New tactics had to be developed to protect troops from these
12. Economic problems led to labor unrest and strikes in 1919 even
as numerous bombs were mailed or detonated in the United States.
As a result, people began to fear a Communist takeover. Palmer
instituted raids that further stirred up fears, even though they proved
to be without much factual basis. States began outlawing speech
against the government, and the New York legislature even ejected
Socialist politicians.
Document-Based Questions
• 14. The Foreign Relations Committee would not pass the
treaty without certain amendments. Henry Cabot Lodge
is shown by the author as helping the treaty come out of
the “operating room” because the treaty was
“slaughtered” during its review.
15. President Wilson did not want to compromise. He
believed that the League of Nations would stand
together if any member was threatened, and the
approval of Congress to act might delay or undermine
the effectiveness of the League.
• How did the European alliances contribute to
the start of World War I?
After Archduke Franz Ferdinand’s assassination,
Austria attacked Serbia. Because of a network of
pledged defensive alliances the attack on Serbia
began a domino effect of alliance responses that
resulted in war across Europe.
• How did the Russian Revolution affect
the two warring sides?
Russia left the war, allowing the Germans
to focus on the Western front.
• Describe in your own words why this
war was a world war.
World War I involved, in one way or
another, many of the nations on Earth and
was fought on several continents.
• What were trenches?
Trenches were long ditches and tunnels
that served to mark the front lines of the
warring powers.