GEOGRAPHY 101 • Geography – the study of earth’s physical features • 7 continents: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America • 5 oceans: Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Southern • Landforms: mountains, lakes, rivers, seas, peninsulas, deltas, gulfs, deserts, plains, plateaus, islands • Longitude – lines that go up and down like a tie – Prime Meridian • Latitude – lines that go horizontally around like a belt-Equator • Hemispheres – World is divided in fourths (Northern, Southern, Eastern, Western hemispheres) • Cartography – study or creation of maps - Cartographer Northern Hemisphere/Southern Hemisphere • The equator 0 degree latitude (world’s belt) divides our world into two halves. • North America, Asia and Europe are completely in the northern hemisphere. • South America and Africa are both in the northern and southern hemisphere. • Australia and Antarctica are the only continents completely in the southern hemisphere. Eastern/Western Hemispheres • The Prime Meridian 0 degree longitude (world’s tie) splits our world into two halves. • North America and South America are completely in the eastern Hemisphere. • Asia and Australia are the only continents completely in the western hemisphere. Continent Quiz Please write your name and 1- 9 on a piece of blank paper. Just write the answer! • 1.) What continent is the United States located on? • 2.) What continent is Brazil located on? • 3.) What continent is Italy, France and Germany located on? • 4.) What continent is Madagascar and Egypt apart of? • 5.) What continent holds India and China? • 6.) What is the only continent that is both a country and a continent? • 7.) What is the most southern continent? • 8.) What two continents may Russia be found on? • 9.) How many hemispheres are there in the world? What Does A Geographical Map Key Do? • A geographical map key uses symbols to represent places on earth like: cities, rivers, boundaries, mountains, capitals and many other places. • In general, a map key is the most important part of a map. Without it, the symbols used may not entirely make sense. • A geographical map key is a tool that every map needs in order for people read a map correctly. • Map key also shows the scale to which the map is adjusted to give proper proximity or distances. Longitude and Latitude • • • • Longitude = up and down like a tie (PRIME MERIDIAN)= 0 degrees Latitude = left to right like a belt or laterally (EQUATOR) = 0 degrees Visible latitude lines go by 15 degrees on a map, all the way up to 90 degrees. Visible longitude lines go by 15 degrees on a map, all the way up to 180 degrees. Important Longitude Facts • • • • • • All longitude lines run vertically or up and down (world’s ties). Longitudes are separated by 15 degrees. Prime Meridian runs through Greenwich, England. International Date Line 180 degrees longitude. Longitudes measure time inside of time zones. There are 24 total time zones throughout the world. Important Latitude Facts • • • • • • • All latitude lines run east to west like a belts around the world. Latitudes are separated by 15 degrees. Equator 0 degree latitude. Tropic of Cancer 23.5 degrees latitude (north of the equator) Tropic of Capricorn 23.5 degrees latitude (south of the equator) Arctic Circle 66.5 degrees latitude (North Pole) Antarctic Circle 66.5 degrees latitude (South Pole) 5 OCEANS • Atlantic Ocean = North America/South America are to its west (left) and Europe/Africa are to its east (right). • Indian Ocean = is in between Africa and Australia. • Pacific Ocean = it is in between Asia and North America/South America, it is north (above) of Australia. • Arctic Ocean = north of Europe/Russia, quite near the North Pole. • Southern Ocean = just north or above Antarctica, south of the other continents.