North Carolina Positive Behavioral Support Initiative


PBIS Team Training

Module 2: Universal Implementation

Exceptional Children Division

Behavior Support & Special Programs positive behavior intervention & support


Modules developed by the University of Missouri

Center for School-wide PBIS and revised by

North Carolina PBIS Trainers


 Be Responsible

 Return promptly from breaks

 Be an active participant

 Be Respectful

 Turn off cell phone ringers

 Listen attentively to others

 Be Kind

 Participate in activities

 Listen and respond appropriately to others’ ideas

Attention Signal

 Trainer will raise his/her hand

 Participants will raise their hand and wait quietly

Institute Overview

 Training organized around three “modules”

 School responsibilities

 Complete Working Agreement

 Attend training

 Develop action plans

 Share Annual Data Requirements with NCDPI

 NCDPI responsibilities

 Provide training support

 Provide limited technical assistance

 Provide networking opportunities




Training Matrix

Module 2 Module 1 Module 3

 PBIS Philosophy

 Team Process &


 Faculty Buy-in

 Family/Community


 Cultural Responsiveness

Technical Assistance for


Classroom Training &

Referral Process

Intervention Team

Cultural Responsiveness

Expectations & Social Skills


 Acknowledgement Systems

Consequence Systems

 Data Collection Manual:

Implementation vs. Outcome


 Big 5

 Management

 Effective Classroom

Design & Management


 Check-in/Check-Out

 Mentoring

 Small Group Social Skills


 Classroom Data

 Data Decision Rules

 Evaluation of Secondary


 Referral Process

 Intervention Team

 Data Decision Rules

 SoC: Wraparound, CFT

 Cultural Responsiveness

 Self-Management

 FBA/BIP: Level 0-I-II-III

 EC Identified Students

 Considerations:

Measureable/ Observable,

Frequency / Intensity /

Duration / Context

 Strategies: DBRs,

Checklists, Observations,


PBIS Team Training Objectives

 Participants will learn…

 Basics for understanding and addressing problem behavior

 Building a continuum of universal approaches to prevention and intervention

 Basics of a successful PBIS team

 Skills for data-based decision-making

Module Two Agenda

 Review

 Systems: Classroom Technical Assistance for Staff,

Cultural Responsiveness, Referral Process/

Intervention Team

 Practices: Effective Classroom Design and

Management, Small Group Social Skills

Instruction, Check-in/Check-out, Mentoring

 Data : Classroom Data, Data Decision Rules,


 Team Time

Module 2 Team Outcomes

 Review/assess current level of implementation

 Consider how to create systems to support growth towards secondary implementation

 Determine method to implement practices

 Plan for continuing data collection and evaluation

Before we begin~

Let’s review

positive behavior intervention & support

PBIS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior.

~OSEP Center on PBIS

PBIS is Not...

 A specific practice or curriculum…it’s a general approach to preventing problem behavior

 Limited to any particular group of students…it’s for all students

 New…it’s based on a long history of behavioral practices and effective instructional design and strategies

School Improvement


Pages 1-2


Whole School


Intensive, Individual Interventions



Specially Designed Instruction



Practices sessions










Struggling Students




Targeted Group Interventions


Group Behavioral Strategies




Mental Health







Universal Interventions

Positive School


Effective instructional practices making

Effective Staff

Development achievement practices

Data Based

Data-based decision-


Parent & Community





Culturally responsive




Parent and


Screening and



Focused procedures


Health Services



Academic Instruction practices

Classroom Coaching and Consultation




CONTINUUM OF positive behavior intervention & support

Secondary Prevention

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with

At Risk Behavior


Tertiary Prevention:



Systems for Students with

High Risk Behavior


Primary Prevention

School wide and

Classroom wide Systems for All Students,

Staff, & Settings ~ 80% of Students


Staff Behavior

Social Competence &

Academic Achievement







Student Behavior




School-wide Systems of

Positive Behavior Support

 Utilize data-based decision-making

 Focus on the use of a continuum of behavioral supports

 Focus on increasing the contextual fit between problem context and what we know works

 Focus on establishing school environments that support long term success of effective practices {3-5 years}

School-wide Systems of

Positive Behavior Support

 Expectations for student behavior are defined by a building based team with input from all staff

 Effective behavioral support is implemented consistently by staff and administration

 Appropriate student behavior is taught

 Positive behaviors are publicly acknowledged

School-wide Systems of

Positive Behavior Support

 Problem behaviors have clear consequences

 Student behavior is monitored and staff receive regular feedback

 Effective Behavioral Support strategies are implemented at the school-wide, specific setting, classroom, and individual student level

 Effective Behavioral Support strategies are designed to meet the needs of:

ALL Students

Universal Strategies:


 Statement of purpose

 Clearly defined expected behavior

 Procedures for teaching expected behavior

 Procedures for encouraging expected behavior

 Procedures for discouraging problem behavior

 Procedures for record-keeping and decision making

PBIS Team Responsibilities

 Assess behavior management practices

 Examine patterns of behavior

 Obtain/Retain staff commitment

 Develop a school-wide plan

 Obtain parental participation and input

 Oversee, monitor, and evaluate all planned objectives and activities developed by the team

PBIS Team Responsibilities

Once practices are established teams should meet at least once a month to:

 Analyze existing data

 Make changes to the existing database

 Problem-solve solutions to critical issues

 Develop/Review Action Plan

Team Time: Self-Assessment

 Assess your PBIS progress thus far

 What are the strengths and needs of your team and school?

 What assessments or pieces of data are you using routinely to make decisions?

It’s Time to Consider Secondary

PBIS Implementation When…

 Universals are not sufficient to impact behavior

 Students display chronic patterns

 Concerns arise regarding students’ behavior


Why is it so critical to build School-Wide

Interventions before implementing

Secondary and then Tertiary



Staff Behavior

Social Competence &

Academic Achievement







Student Behavior




Secondary Systems

 Ensuring that all staff are using best classroom practices

 Rationale: Brain-based learning

 Cultural Responsiveness

 Effective Teaching Plans

 Secondary Team Functions

 Function Based Intervention

 Data Decision Rules

 How Students Access Targeted Interventions

The Science of Learning


 Is stubborn and inflexible. We do “more of the same” even when it doesn’t work.

 American culture encourages us to look for the “quick fix”.

What is “perceived” by the brain determines the chemical response.


How one interprets reality when under stress is most reflective of one’s significant life experiences.

The Brain Begins to Customize Itself for its Particular Lifestyle… by pruning away unneeded cells and billions of unused connections.

As educators, we must ask:

“Exactly what talents, abilities, and experiences are students being exposed to…and, on the other hand, what are they missing out on?”

The Brain’s Subconscious Assessment

Immediate Memory

 Do I WANT to learn this?

 How does this relate to what I already know?

 Does this make sense?

 What do I get from learning this?

 Do people that matter to me know or want to know this?

The Brain

 Brainstem

Sustains life functions

(blood pressure, heart rate)

 Midbrain

Appetite & Sleep

 Limbic System

Seat of emotions and impulse-action oriented if aroused

 Cortex

Logic, planning, cognition, executive functions






To Avoid Functioning in Limbic Mode

In your classroom, students must feel

 Safe

 Wanted

 Successful

The Chemistry of Attention

 Dopamine levels decrease as focused attention time is required or enforced

 Dopamine regulates emotion, movement, and thought

 Research suggests 8-12 minutes of maintained attention for grades 3-7

 When learners are drowsy or “out of it,” it’s likely that brain chemical levels are low

How should we plan instruction?

 Provide engaging activities:

 Physical movement

 Use humor

 Play music

 Change location

 Drama/Storytelling

 Games

 Discussions

 Celebrations

How should we plan instruction?

 Rotate styles of instruction to provide strong contrast

 mini-lectures

 group work

 peer feedback

 Reflection

 individual work

 team time

 Computers

 student-led teaching

How should we plan instruction?

 Use emotion to trigger attention

 Alert Students’ Senses

 Trigger Significant Memories

 Introduce a Sense of Novelty

 Build in time for processing and rest so information has a chance to make it into long-term memory

How should we plan instruction?

** BONUS…physical activity triggers release of hormones that enhance neural communication, elevates mood, and assists in long-term memory formation!!

Creating a Climate for Learning

 Clear, Positive


 Clear Rules

 Positive Role Modeling

 Acceptance of


 Respect for Each


 Limit Setting

 Praise

 Procedures &


 Positive


 Structured Academic


Activity: Johnny’s Story

A child’s life is like a piece of paper on which every passerby leaves a mark.

Chinese Proverb




Culturally Responsive Instruction

 Acknowledge students’ differences as well as their commonalities

 Validate students’ cultural identity in classroom practices and instructional materials

 Educate students about the diversity of the world around them

 Promote equity and mutual respect among students

 Assess students’ ability and achievement validly

Culturally Responsive Instruction

 Foster a positive interrelationship among students, their families, the community, and school

 Motivate students to become active participants in their learning

 Encourage students to think critically

 Challenge students to strive for excellence as defined by their potential

 Assist students in becoming socially and politically conscious

Think, Pair, Share

 What would this look like in a classroom?

What ideas do you have for approaches or activities that would help you accomplish this goal?

Effective Teaching Plans

Who’s In Charge of the Mood of the Classroom?

“I have come to the conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom. It is my personal approach that creates the climate.

It’s my daily mood that makes the weather.

As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a child’s life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal. In all situations it is my response that influences whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated and a child humanized or dehumanized.” Haim Ginott

Effective Teaching Plans…

 Are for all teachers

 Support struggling teachers

 Boost teachers in a rut

 Become fluid, living, breathing documents

 Support reflective, thoughtful, wellplanned teaching & use of effective strategies (academic and social)

 Provide direction for needed PBIS system supports

Components of An Effective

Teaching Plan

 Define classroom rules based on school-wide expectations

 Outline routines (attention signal, etc)

 Establish schedule for teaching routines and procedures

 Decide strategies for encouraging appropriate behavior and discouraging problem behavior

 Plan a variety of instructional strategies

 Establish effective classroom environment

Sustaining and Maintaining

Effective Classroom Practices

 Ongoing staff development

 Effective teaching plan

 Peer coaching

 Mentoring

 Supportive environment

Team based problem solving

 Positive parent contact

Effective Instruction

Effective instruction increases the likelihood of correct student responses

Correct responding is correlated with positive teacher interactions

Leading to increased academic achievement of students and positive behavioral exchanges between students and teachers

Gunter, Hummel, & Venn, 1998

Team Time

 How can our team help all teachers in our building utilize Best Practice in the


Secondary Team Systems

Secondary Team Systems

 Function Based Intervention

 Data Decision Rules

 How Students Access Targeted


Function Based Interventions

To correctly match appropriate interventions to problem behaviors, teams will rely on the science of behavior.

Basics of Behavior

 Behavior is learned

 Every social interaction you have with a child teaches him/her something

Functional Perspective

 Every behavior serves a purpose

(…every picture tells a story …

 Every behavior’s purpose is to meet a need

(either real or perceived)

 The “WHY” of behavior

Think, Pair, Share

How would knowing the function of problem behavior assist in developing interventions?

Brief Behavioral Assessment

Eddie’s teacher is increasingly frustrated with his outbursts. Anytime she asks

Eddie to work independently or turn in assignments, Eddie talks back, yells out, gets out of his seat, or “starts something” with his classmates. Eddie’s teacher says that she has tried repeatedly to talk to him about this behavior to no avail.

Behavior Interventions

Look for opportunities to:

 Prevent problem behavior from occurring

 Teach an acceptable alternative behavior

 Reward a positive behavior

Behavioral Interventions




2. Staff


3. Indep.


4. Little



Is there any way to remove?


1. Blurt out

2. Talking back

3. Yelling

4. Verbal


5. Out of





2. Talk about


3. Repeat

4. Peers



What new

Behavior can we teach?


How can we respond differently?


1. Get

Teacher attention

(power struggle/ conversation)


Is there a different way for the student to get his/her need met?


Page 8

Team Time

 List the Student Support Programs being offered in your school now. Decide which behavioral needs are met by each program.

How will students access

Secondary Interventions?

Access to Secondary Interventions

 Staff all know how to refer students

 Intervention begins within 10 days of referral

 Data decision rule or screening to determine students that need additional support that are not referred

 System in place for data collection and review of students receiving Secondary support

Working Smarter

 What does working smarter look like at the individual level?

 How do we invest our resources wisely?

 Develop a continuum of support, within the secondary level to address all the shades of yellow

Targeted Students





Team Assessment of




Team Contact

Request for


Referral Process

 How will teachers know who to refer?

 Data decision rule

 Professional judgment

 After what process in classroom

 How do they refer?

 Conversation in the hall

 Form

 To Whom

Referral Process

 Team Receives Referral

 How does team decide with available targeted intervention is appropriate?

 Team places student in intervention

 Team evaluates

 Continue Intervention

 Move to next step

Team Time

Complete Part I and Part II of the

CISS to help you plan for implementation of Secondary


Common Questions


We know what you’re really thinking…

Do Problem Students Deserve

Positive Attention?

 Students are not equal.

 Some have received a lot of attention from infancy.

 Some have received very little attention.

 Many have only received negative attention.

When I Change Interactions, Am I Giving a Misbehaving Student Her/His Way?

The teacher begins to take control by initiating interactions while the student is being responsible.

Is it Appropriate to Give Even More Time and Attention to Students Who Misbehave?

Reducing the amount of attention the student gets for misbehavior and increasing attention for appropriate behavior is not changing the time; It is simply restructuring your time.

Won’t the Students Know The

Positive Attention is Phony?

Over time, positive interactions become

“normal” and the student is likely to invite more natural positive interactions.

What Do You Do When You Just

Don’t Like the Student?

Be professional!


Staff Behavior

Social Competence &

Academic Achievement







Student Behavior




Secondary Practices

 Effective Classroom Practices

 Targeted Small Group Interventions

 Small group social skills instruction

 Mentoring

 Check-in/ Check-out or BEP

Practices In The


What is the single best practice to reduce problem behavior in the



Practices in the Classroom

 Assess Physical Arrangement of


 Establish Behavioral Expectations/Rules

 Encourage Expected Behavior

 Minimize and Correct Student Behavior


 Provide Effective Instruction

Physical Arrangement

Physical Arrangement

 Reduce congestion in high-traffic areas.

 Ensure the teacher can easily see all students.

 Make teaching materials and student supplies easily accessible.

 Make sure students can easily observe whole class presentations.

 Devote some display space to student work.

Classroom Arrangement


 What type of activities will students typically be doing?

 What type of student interaction does the teacher want?

 What arrangements will foster these activities and interactions?

Think, Pair, Share

 Think about how you have arranged your classroom to enhance student behavior

 Pair up with another person

 One person shares

 Watch for signal

 The second person shares

Establish Expectations,

Rules, and Routines

Establish Behavioral

Expectations and Rules

 Use School-wide expectations as basis for classroom Rules

 Clearly and positively stated

 State in observable terms

 Posted and Referred to frequently

 Teach explicitly to FLUENCY

 Reinforce consistently

Teaching Effective Rules

 Tell-Show-Practice (Assess-Repeat)

 Give Positive Reinforcement for Appropriate

Student Use

 Consider Consequences for Errors

 re-teach

 redirect

 time to “Cool Down”

 Reflect! Are the Rules Working? Why or Why


Teaching Expectations

Teach your expectations before the activity or transition begins.

Monitor student behavior by circulating and visually scanning.

Provide feedback during the activity and at the conclusion of the activity.

Begin the cycle again for the next activity.

Establish Procedures Based on


 Develop a Schedule

 Teach an Attention Signal

 Teach Routines for Repetitive


 Use Precorrects

Develop Classroom Schedule

 Establish predictable schedules

 illustrate with icons, time, etc.

 Schedule non-instruction time

 administration time

 personal time

 Evaluate the variety and time for each activity .

Develop A Schedule...

Down Time Causes Problems

 Time unscheduled in a classroom is an open invitation to disruptive behavior.

 Scheduled time is one of the basic proactive variables that is under teacher control.

 70% of the school day should be scheduled for academic activity.

Sample Schedule

10 Min T eacher directed review of previous concepts

5 Min H omework review

20 Min

15 Min

T eacher directed new concepts

T eacher directed guided practice

30 Min

10 Min

I ndependent work

T eacher directed guided practice and review

Teach Attention Signal

 Always use a simple portable cue to prompt students to listen.

 Avoid starting instruction until all students are attending

 Reinforce students who attend immediately

 Provide specific verbal praise to peers to redirect students

 Consistency, consistency, consistency!

Think, Pair, Share

 What are some effective attention signals you have used in the past?

 How could you share with your colleagues?

 Do you have a school-wide attention signal?


 Used for transition times and basic activities that happen on a regular basis.

 Establish clear expectations for students and adults.

 Plan, post, and teach routines.

Effective Routines - Rationale

The number one problem in the classroom is not discipline; it is the lack of procedures and routines. A vast majority of the behavior problems in the classroom are caused by the failure of students to follow procedures and routines.

-Harry Wong

Effective Routines:

Why They Help Manage Behavior

 S upport for transition times and basic activities that happen on a regular basis

 Establish predictability

 Clear Expectations for Student Behavior

 Clear Expectations for Adult Behavior

Teach Routines

 Think through and establish procedures for transition times and basic regularly scheduled activities

 Effective procedures become routines

 Establish clear expectations for student behavior and clear expectations for adult behavior

 Plan, Post and Teach!

 Tell-Show-Practice-Feedback loop

 Consistently teach all day, every day

 Reflect: Are procedures working? Why or why not?

Effective Routines

 Use Think-Pair-Share to brainstorm a list of procedures teachers need to teach

 You have 2 minutes

 Share your list!

Give Precorrects

 Precorrects function as reminders

 Opportunities to practice

 Prompt for expected behavior

 Especially helpful before teacher anticipates behavior learning errors

Precorrect Examples

 “ Remember, before you leave class, collect all your materials, put your papers in the bin, and quietly walk out of the room.”

 “ Sam, show us how to be respectful and line up quietly for gym.”




Encourage Expected Behavior

Provide praise for correct academic responses and appropriate social behavior leading to:

 Increases in student correct responses

 Increases in on task behavior

 Decreases in disruptive behaviors

(Sutherland, 2000)

Encourage Expected Behavior:

Verbal Feedback

 Timely and Accurate

 Specific and Descriptive

(Tie to school-wide expectations)

 Contingent

 Age-appropriate

 Given in a Manner that Fits Your Style

Examples of

Non-Verbal Feedback

 Wink

 Nod

 Thumbs-up

 Pat on the back

 High-five

 Hug (when and where appropriate)

Ratio of Interactions

 Strive to keep an 8:1 ratio of positive-to-negative statements

 Each time you have a negative interaction with a student, tell yourself you owe that student positive interactions

 Identify specific times during the day you will give positive feedback

 Schedule individual conference time

 Scan the room searching for appropriate behaviors

 Engage in frequent positive interactions with all students

Increasing Positive Interactions

 Focus on teaching students to get attention through responsible behavior rather than misbehavior.

 Require adults to change the ratio of adult to student interactions from primarily negative to primarily positive

Increasing Positive Interactions

 Based on the concept that most students want and need adult attention.

 Leads students to feel like valued members of the learning community

Positive Interactions

It sounds so easy… but it can be so difficult!

Think, Pair and Share

 Think about what you need to do to increase your positive interactions with students

 Pair up with another person

 One person shares

 Listen for signal

 The second person shares

Techniques to Improve


 Do not use a question format

 Get up close

 Use a quiet voice

 Make eye contact

 Give them time

Techniques to Improve


 Tell them only twice

 Give one direction at a time

 Tell students what you want them to do

(rather than what you don’t)

 Verbally reinforce compliance

 Get up and move

Increasing Opportunities to Respond:

Active Participation

 Encourages everyone to become involved in learning

 Increases rate of responses of all learners

 Increases attainment of material presented

 Allows reluctant learners a secure environment to practice

 Decreases inappropriate or off task behavior

Whole Group Oral Response

 Strategy for reviewing or memorizing information

 Students repeat information in unison when teacher prompts

Practice Time!

 Students should be reinforced at a rate of _____ to ______.

 Universal strategies used in classroom management are to teach rules and _________.

 PBIS stands for_________________.

Whole Group Action Responses

 Students are asked to do something during the lesson

 Example:

 Put your finger on the title of the story

 Point to the hour hand on the clock

 Touch the action word in the sentence

Whole Group Written Response

 Plan for short written responses (not more than one item)

 Teach a signal for students to indicate completion (e.g. put your pencils down and look up when you are finished)

 Have individual materials available: paper, slates, chalkboards or white boards

Small Groups / Partners

 Used to give everyone a chance to:

 Express thoughts

 Answer a question

 Verbally participate when there could be a variety of answers

 Answers can be shared with other groups or whole group

 Answers can be written on overhead by the teacher and presented to group

Minimize and Correct

Student Behavior Errors

Techniques to Minimize At-Risk


 Surface Management

 Cognitive Approaches

 Sensory Strategies

 Signaling Systems

Surface Management: Proximity

Physical presence of the teacher is an external source of control for student behavior.

 Allows for intervention without any “public” acknowledgement of the student or behavior of concern

 As behavior occurs, the teacher circulates around the room, moving closer to the student

 Proximity can range from standing nearby to placing a hand on the desk or even on the student’s shoulder.

 The teacher is allowed to continue teaching!

Surface Management:

Antiseptic Bouncing

Allows the student to exit the setting briefly and minimizes continuation/escalation of the behavior

 Signal student to leave while “saving face”.

 Travel to an arranged spot for a set time frame.

 This can be done as a “helping job”.

 This process should prearranged.

Surface Management: Humor

Humor can be used to effectively redirect and/or de-escalate behavior.

 A good ice-breaker allows everyone to save face

 Caution: sarcasm should not be used!

 Caution: If you said it, and you are the only one laughing, it wasn’t really funny!

Surface Management: Ignoring

Quite simply, refusal to respond

 Useful for low-intensity behaviors

 No eye-contact, emotion, proximity, message

(verbal, gesture, tone, expression)

 Begins immediately upon behavior initiation

 Pair with reinforcement of the correct behavior

Cognitive Approach: Routines

Structure creates safety and comfort

 Provides a sense of purpose, work guidelines and ability to anticipate

 Structure that is universal will especially benefit certain students

 Additional individual structure may be needed

Cognitive Approach: Repetition

If it’s important, say it (write it, do it) again!

 Natural way for the brain to determine importance

 Ensures information will be available when it is ready to be processed

 Can also be done through symbolic attachment

Sensory Strategy: Music

There are specific neurons for processing music…it may be a preferred learning style.

 Specifically helpful in spatial reasoning and math

 Useful to facilitate student transition

 Impacts and helps regulate mood

 Can be calming to students with anxiety….

 Provides multiple reinforcement opportunities


Sensory Strategy: Movement

Physical movement (gross and fine motor)

 Associated with language development and problem solving

 Repetitive movement can improve recall

 Can increase engagement and time on task with students seen as being easily distracted or inattentive

 Provides stress reduction

 Provides multiple reinforcement opportunities

Signaling System: Cueing

Visually/Verbally based prompts and reminders

 Improve overall communication when paired with language

 Respond to the brain’s needs during stress to process information and clarify perceptions

 Gain student attention by signaling the brain as to what is important

 Minimize disruptions to the learning process

Signaling Systems:


Visuals are the strongest aide in quick learning.

Vision also has dedicated neurons in the brain.

Children need gestures to make language clearer.

Stress makes the brain more dependent on visuals not only to hear and process, but also to establish perceptions.

 Use visual cues to get students’ attention, to clarify language, as a behavioral intervention, and to signal the brain as to what is important.

Signaling Systems:

CATCH PHRASES (Verbal Cueing)




US Army?


 Key Points in your lessons should be reduced to catch phrases.

 Rules/Procedures should be reduced to catch phrases.

What should be your first strategy to address repetitive student behavior errors?

Correct Student Behavior Errors

 “Emotion Free” response

 More effective if students have been taught expected behaviors

 Minimize attention other than to signal an error has occurred

 Praise for appropriate behavior

Correct Student Behavior Errors


Signal that an error has occurred

Refer to rules: "We respect others in this room and that means not using put downs.”


Ask for an alternative appropriate response

"How can you show respect and still get your point across?"


Provide an opportunity to practice the skill and provide verbal feedback


"That's much better, thank you for showing respect toward others.”

Utilize Effective

Reinforcement Strategies

Effective Reinforcement


 Behavior(s) are determined and taught

 Reinforcement is contingent upon appropriate behavior

 Be generous with reinforcers at the beginning

 Reward class when :

 Students who have not exhibited behavior in the past are exhibiting the behavior now.

 Students who have exhibited behaviors in the past continue to exhibit them.

More Reinforcement Strategies

Group contingencies or individual systems

 “Yes/no” bag

 Compliance matrix

 Lottery tickets

The “Yes” and “No” Bag

Things needed to implement include:

- 50 or so ‘yes’ and

‘no’ cards

- A container, box or bag

- A reward (mystery motivator!)

Steps to Implement

“Yes and No”

 Decide on the behavior(s) to be reinforced.

 Teach the desired behavior(s).

 Catch the students doing the desired behavior.

 Describe the behavior and put a “Yes” ticket in the bag.

 If you see an inappropriate behavior, state the desired behavior and put a “No” ticket in the bag.

“Yes” & “No”

 At the designated time, draw a ticket out of the bag.

If it is a “Yes” ticket, the students receive the reinforcer.

If it is a “No” ticket, there is no reinforcer that day.

Compliance Matrix











11 12 13 14 15

16 17 18 19 20

21 22 23 24 25

Lottery Tickets

 Determine the behavior(s) you want to reinforce

 Teach the behavior to the students

 Give the student a ticket when you see the behavior.

 Have student write his/her name on ticket and put ticket in box/bin.

 At a designated time, draw a ticket out of the bin and present a reinforcer to the student whose name is on the ticket.


Social Skills


Students learn appropriate behavior in the same way a child who doesn’t know how to read learns to read—through instruction, practice, feedback, and encouragement.

Teaching Behavior

 Inappropriate behavior is viewed as a skill deficit.

 Social skills training teaches students a process or strategy to resolve problems.

 Teaching behavior is used when a student needs to replace problem behavior with a more desirable behavior.

Two Types of Social Skill Deficits

 Skill deficits (cannot do)

 Direct teaching approach

 Coaching, modeling, behavior rehearsal

 Performance deficits (will not do)

 Incentive-based management approach

 Prompting, cuing, reinforcement

 Prompted social initiations

 Home and school rewards

 Individual and group contingencies

Assessment of Social Skills

 Skill based deficit

 Provide strong incentive to observe if student can perform under such conditions.

Assessment of Social Skills

 Performance based deficit

 Motivational deficit

 Observe if student performs skill following introduction of motivational strategy.

 motivation=value*belief in ability*get reward promised

(Vroom, 1964)

 Discrimination deficit

 Student frequently performs skill, but fails to perform under specific circumstances.

 Oblivious to social cues or social demands of situation.

Social Skills Instruction

 Direct instruction

 Skill based approach

 Social problem solving

 Strategy based approach

 Opportunistic teaching (not enough alone)

 Prompt students who have missed an opportunity to practice a skill

 Provide correction when skill is incorrectly or inappropriately demonstrated

 Debrief when student uses inappropriate behavior in place of appropriate social skill

To effectively teach social skills you must ALWAYS determine what you want the student to do INSTEAD

Social Skill Areas

 Cooperation skills

 Assertion skills

 Friendship skills

 Empathy skills

 Self-control skills

 School and classroom skills

Social Skills Instruction for

Small Groups

 Select & group students with similar needs

 Determine staff responsible

 Determine best time for instruction

 Select curricula & write lessons

 Communicate with teacher and parents

 Evaluate effectiveness

Social Skills Instruction for

Small Groups

 Select & group students with similar needs

 Type of problem behavior

 Intensity of problem behavior

 Age/Developmental Level

 Gender

 Develop Group Behavior Management Plan

Social Skills Instruction for

Small Groups

 Determine staff responsible

 Consider size of group and type of problem behavior when assigning staff to (co) lead

 Determine best time for instruction

 Lunchtime, After/Before School,

Rotating Schedule

Social Skills Instruction for

Small Groups

 Select curricula & write lessons

 Consider students’ developmental level

 Commercial curricula, online lessons, or custom lessons

 Materials needed

 Meeting space requirements/limitations

Social Skills Instruction for

Small Groups

 Select curricula and write lessons

 Tell, Show, Practice, Assess, Repeat

 Teach replacement behaviors

 First Day Lesson

Social Skills Instruction for

Small Groups

 Select curricula and write lessons

 Rationale

 when and why

 Modeling

 Role play

 Feedback

 Coach to fluency

Generalization Strategies

 During instruction

 Use naturally occurring examples within the role plays.

 Use naturally occurring reinforcers.

 Use appropriate language.

 Pinpoint activities in which students are likely to engage.

 Target useful skills (skills likely to be reinforced by others).

Generalization Strategies

 Provide a range of useful skill variations.

 Teach in the targeted setting.

 When teaching, include peers the target student is likely to encounter in the problem setting.

 Use a number of adults when teaching.

 Continue teaching for a sufficient amount of time.

Social Skills Instruction for

Small Groups

 Communicate with teacher and parents

 Written parent permission best practice

 Determine how teacher(s)/parent(s) can encourage/participate


Social Skills Instruction for

Small Groups

 Evaluate effectiveness

 Pre/Post Data Comparison

 Teacher/Parent Feedback

 Student Assessment

Social Skill Example:

Following Directions/Instructions

 Discuss rationale for the critical rule

 What would happen if you do or do not follow directions?

 If you follow directions, your parents may see you as more responsible and cooperative which could lead to more privileges.

 Your teacher will view you as a learner because you follow through.

 If you don’t follow directions, an adult might think you are deliberately misbehaving or ignoring them.

 Elicit responses from students: when, where & with whom they would use this skill.

Following Directions

Teach/describe the skill and skill steps.

 Look at the person.

 Acknowledge (verbal or nonverbal).

 Decide if you need to ask any clarifying questions.

 Do the task immediately.

 Check back if appropriate.

Following Directions

 Model examples and non-examples.

 Provide an example from your life of when you followed directions.

 Provide more examples than nonexamples.

Following Directions

 Role play / practice with feedback.

 Students role play scenarios elicited from the group.

 Students and teachers observing can provide specific feedback.

 Review and test:

Identify one time in which you did not follow directions.

Identify one time in which you did follow directions.

Critical Components of

Behavior Instruction

 Teach the skill.

 Demonstrate the skill.

 Provide multiple opportunities for practice with feedback.

 Reinforce and encourage when students demonstrate the skill.

Key Points

 It’s not what they know, it’s what they do.

 Behavior can be taught.

 Students need multiple opportunities to practice behavioral skill deficits.

 Teachers need to reinforce students when they demonstrate targeted skills.

Published Curriculum ols/index.html

 Electronic curriculum

 84 social skills lessons

 Lesson design

 Age appropriate activities

 Role play rating sheets

 Age appropriate homework sheets

 Assessment surveys

 Progress reports

Team Time


Pages 22-24

 Using your behavior matrix as a guide, make a list of lesson plans your teachers need to teach class-wide/schoolwide social skills, and targeted groups that might be required

 Start writing lesson plans if time allows

 Discuss how teachers will show evidence of social skill lessons. Consider possible reinforcers for those who do.



Occurs when an experienced adult develops a personal relationship with a student through which the older adult or mentor encourages and guides the student.


Part of a systems approach to providing critical intervention for students who:

 Lack a role model

 Experience academic failure

 Maintain behavior with adult attention


 Official/non-official adult friend/confidant

 Persistent presence around the school

 Universally recognized

 Approachable

 Cheap/cost effective

Mentor’s Role

 To provide guidance, support, and encouragement for the student while modeling such skills as effective communication, empathy and concern for others, and openness and honesty

 Commitment for entire academic year

 Requires a shift in student-adult relationship


Development Mentoring…

 Essential components of mentoring programs

 Involve personnel who have contact with students

 Select program staff

 Determine program goals and objectives

 Define target population

 Develop activities and procedures

Essential Components of

Mentoring Programs Continued…

 Orient mentors and students

 Monitor mentoring process

 Ensure a good match

 Evaluate program effectiveness

Involve Personnel Who Have

Contact With Students

 Teachers

 suggest program type “best fit”

 Administrators

 actively involved in scheduling, recruiting, and mentor selection

 Counselors

 train mentors, troubleshoot problems, etc.

 Secretaries

 Cooks

 Custodians


 Community Volunteers

 Local businesses

 Grandparents

 Retired individuals

 Universities

 High schools

 Local service agencies

 Advisory board consisting of school personnel, students, and parents

Determine Program Goals and


 Based on needs of students

 Determined by advisory board

Focus on basic needs of students

 Academic

 Achievement

 Behavior

 Communication

 Attendance

 Social skills

Define Target Population

 Clearly define population and selection criteria

 Academic failure, absentees, etc.

 Age/grade level

Develop Activities and


 Determine length and frequency of mentor-student contact

 Daily

 Weekly

 Monthly

 Activities should be planned in advance and placed on a schedule to be shared with participants

Example Mentor and Student Calendar of

Scheduled Activities for the Year

Nov Dec Jan Feb Activities

Identify mentors

Identify students and teachers

Select and prepare training materials

Match students with mentors

Provide orientation program

Meet with teachers and mentors to monitor matches and troubleshoot

Parent/teacher/student dinner

Visit mentors’ job sites with students

Field trip to local college/university

Community service project:


Spring counseling/camping trip: mentors, students, and parents

Aug Sept








Mentor/student picnic











Page 25

Apr May




Orient Mentors and Students

Before formal process begins:

 Both mentor and student should understand roles and hold positive expectations

 Mentors must be aware of student needs and characteristics

 Determine individual student goals and outcomes

Monitor Mentoring Process

 Continuous monitoring to determine success

 Provide ongoing support for the mentor

 Formal/informal

 Where

 When

 How often

Ensure Good Match

 Predictors of a good match

 Personality

 Common interests

 Natural bonds

 Gender

 Most important

 Mentor’s ability to empathize

Successful Mentoring Example

Elementary school

 High percentage of low SES & minority students

 3rd year of implementing systems of positive behavior intervention & support

 Program Goals

 Reduce office referrals by 25%

 On-going monitoring/evaluation of program

(twice a year)

Mentoring Program Structure

Data-based student selection

 Designed to meet the needs of repeat offenders who

 Exhibited attention maintained behavior

 Lacked role models

 Experience academic failure

 Obtained parent permission

Mentoring Program Implementation


 Provided 30 minute staff in-service

 Emphasized staff commitment and role

 Primarily a time commitment

 Time to talk about student’s interests, problems, background, etc.

 Not responsible for homework

 Shared district confidentiality policies

 Obtained staff agreement on time commitment - Staff volunteered and selected a student

 Reminded staff of the purpose of time with students

More Implementation Steps

 Had orientation meeting with students

 Scheduled mentor-student meeting times

 Recess

 Lunch

 Before or after school

 During special classes (art, PE, music)

 During silent reading

 Provided ongoing support to staff

 Reported outcomes to staff

Decrease in Referrals - Mentor Intervention

Fall 2000 Fall 2001

















Mentoring Program Outcomes

 Reduction in Office Referrals

 20% school-wide

 58% moderately at-risk students

 Change in “tone” of teacher conversation

 Positive shift in parent views

 Positive administrative feedback



…is another systems strategy that can be used in conjunction with other strategies or as a component of the larger system.

A Check-In Example

Fern Ridge Middle School

High Five Program: The BEP


Pages 26-31

Goals of Fern Ridge BEP

 To assist students with behavioral and academic concerns

 To provide structure and positive support for students to ensure their success within the school setting

 To build positive, caring, and meaningful relationships between students and adults


 Provides an adult for the student to make contact with on a regular basis

 Beginning of the day

 End of the day

 Effective for students who seek adult attention

BEP Program Structure

 Check-in Coordinator

 Facilitator of check in and check out, weekly meetings, and summarizing data

 Staff Expectations

 Accept Daily Progress Report Card from students

 Complete after each class

 Provide students with constructive positive feedback

 Attend weekly meetings as necessary

BEP Program Structure

 Parent Expectations

 Attend planning and review meetings

 Sign Contract Agreement and Report Form

 Review progress with child

 Communicate with school

BEP Program Structure

 Student Expectations

 Attend training

 Check-in before and after school

 Get Daily Progress Report form signed by each teacher

 Take Report form home, review with parents

BEP Cycle

BEP Plan





Daily Teacher


Weekly BEP Meeting

9-Week Graph



Adapted from Crone, Horner, & Hawken, Responding to Problem Behavior in

Schools: The Behavior Education Program (2004)


Team Time

Discuss which secondary strategies you think would be most helpful at your school.

Think about necessary steps to implement each strategy at your school.


Staff Behavior

Social Competence &

Academic Achievement







Student Behavior





 Small Group Outcome Data

 Data decision rules

 Data Collection Tool: DBR

 Evaluation of Secondary level of PBIS

See Data Manual pages 33-35

Small Group Outcome Data

Small Group Outcome Data

 Identification of which students are in need of the most support

 Assess problem behavior at the individual and small group level pre- and post-intervention

Small Group Outcome Data

How will collecting this data impact:

 School Administrators

 Document the educational and behavioral progress of at-risk students

 identify which interventions are most effective in working with at-risk students

 PBIS Teams

 determine the effectiveness of functional based behavioral supports and address problem areas through a team-based approach.

Small Group Outcome Data

How will collecting this data impact:

 Teachers

 Provides clear way to focus time and energy on interventions that are shown to be effective

 Gives clear way to communicate progress to other staff and parents

 Students, parents, and communities

 Improves quality of interventions for children

 Gives common way for teachers and parents to communicate about progress

Triangle of Student Referrals:

Intensive, Individual Interventions

Individual Students


Intense, durable procedures

Targeted Group Interventions

Some Students (at-risk)

High Efficiency

Rapid Response

Universal Interventions

All Settings

All Students,

Preventive, proactive








Students with 6+ referrals

Students with 2-5 referral

Students with 0-1 referrals

Data Decision Rules

Data Decision Rules

 Can be used by teams to determine set points where students will be referred for additional support

 Can be used to determine focus of implementation

Data Decision Rule Examples

 Any student that is absent more than 3 days in one month (or one 4 week period) will be referred for intervention

 Any student who receives 2 or more ODRs within a 9-week period will be referred for intervention

 Any student who fails one or more classes will be invited to join a small group related to classroom success

Data Decision Rule Examples




More than 40% of students receive one or more office referrals

More than 2.5 office referrals per student



More than 35% of office referrals come from nonclassroom settings

More than 15% of students referred from nonclassroom settings



More than 60% of office referrals come from the classroom

50% or more of office referrals come from less than

10% of classrooms


More than 10-15 students receive 5 or more office referrals




Less than 10 students with 10 or more office referrals

Less than 10 students continue rate of referrals after receiving targeted group settings

Small number of students destabilizing overall functioning of school


School Wide System

Non-Classroom System

Classroom Systems

Targeted Group Interventions /

Classroom Systems

Individual Student Systems

Data Collection Tool: DBR

Defining Characteristics of the


( Direct Behavior Report )

• The DBR involves a brief rating of target behavior over a specified period of time

• a behavior(s) is specified

• rating of the behavior(s) typically occurs at least daily

• obtained information is shared across individuals (e.g., parents, teachers, students)

• the card is used to monitor the effects of an intervention and/or as a component of an intervention

(Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman & McDougal, 2002)

Many Potential Uses for the DBR

• Increase communication (teacher-student, homeschool)

• As a component of an intervention package, particularly in self-management

• Provide “quick” assessment of behaviors, especially those not easily captured by other means

• Monitor student behavior over time

• Flexible

– K-12,

– + or –

– 1 student or larger group

– range of behaviors




Who are those kids?

 Create an excel spreadsheet to track interventions such as check-in/check-out, mentoring, or social skills group outcomes.

Create a chart to show the number of referrals students received prior to intervention.

Create a chart to show the number of referrals students received pre- and postintervention.

Evaluation of

Targeted Interventions

Evaluate Program Effectiveness

 Pre-test/post-test comparison of criterion for entrance into program

(attendance, grades, suspensions, etc.)

Evaluate Program Effectiveness

 Possible outcomes: Increase in…

 Student attendance

 Work completion/grades

 Academic performance

 Completion of homework

 Parental/teacher involvement

 Positive student-teacher interactions

Evaluate Program Effectiveness

 Decrease in

 Meetings with counselor

 Office referrals

 Time outs

 Suspension

 Detention

Practical Suggestions

 Keep in mind the importance of communication, especially “listening”

 Remember your purpose

 Get parents/community involved

 Continue ongoing assessment of program effectiveness

Additional Support

 Regional Coordinator contact information

 Resources (also Workbook page 36)

 Links

 Data Manual & Collection Tools

 Implementation & Survey Tools

Team Time: Synthesis

 What will your team do now to address current needs (refer to action plan, current data, and inventory)?

 Create a data decision rule: How will your team know when you are ready to move toward implementation of more

Secondary Interventions ?

 How will you keep your foundation stable?