Review for 1945-1969 Test John F. Kennedy John F. Kennedy was elected President in 1960. He was president during the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Assassinated on November 22nd 1963. William J. Levitt William J. Levitt was responsible for bringing the “assembly line” process to home building during the post World War II era. Richard M. Nixon Richard M. Nixon ran for president in 1960. He was elected president in 1968. He eventually was forced to resign office in 1974 as a result of the Watergate Scandal Joseph McCarthy Joseph McCarthy Senator who conducted political “witch hunts” in the 1950s seeking to show Communist influence in American society. Robert F. Kennedy Robert F. Kennedy was a Massachusetts Senator (younger brother of JFK) who was assassinated in 1968 during the Democratic national primary. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were a couple that were convicted of spying for the USSR—and executed. Nikita Khrushchev Nikita Khrushchev was Leader of the USSR from 1953-1964. Dealt with Nixon in the Kitchen Debates as well as with JFK during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Muhammad Ali Muhammad Ali was a talented boxer who caused controversy by refusing to serve in Vietnam. Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight D. Eisenhower was a former World War II General. Served as President of the United States from 1953-1961 (elected in ’52 and ’56) Lyndon B. Johnson Lyndon B. Johnson was Vice President under John F. Kennedy. Came to power in 1963 following the death of JFK. Elected by a landslide in 1964. Known for passage of Civil Rights Laws as well as for escalation of the Vietnam War. Lee Harvey Oswald Lee Harvey Oswald was the Alleged assassin of President John F. Kennedy. He was killed by a nightclub owner, Jack Ruby 2 days after the murder of President Kennedy. Douglas MacArthur Douglas MacArthur was a World War II and Korean War General who was fired by President Truman for insubordination. He and Truman disagreed about using the atom bomb on Korea and China. J.D. Tippit J.D. Tippit was a Dallas Police officer allegedly killed by Lee Harvey Oswald. Elvis Presley Elvis Presley was the “King” of Rock and Roll. He emerged on the music scene in the 1950’s and was a cultural icon until his death in 1977. Jack Ruby Jack Ruby was a Dallas nightclub owner with ties to organized crime. He gunned down Lee Harvey Oswald on national television. The Little Rock 9 The Little Rock 9 were African American students in Arkansas who had to have a military escort to attend classes at Central High School. Martin Luther King Jr. Martin Luther King Jr. was Civil Rights leader who made a name for himself during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Dr King promoted change through non-violent methods. Malcolm X Malcolm X was a Civil Rights leader who advocated equality and segregation by any means necessary (including violence). Elijah Muhammad Elijah Muhammad was the Founder of the Nation of Islam. His teachings influenced Malcolm X. James Baldwin James Baldwin was an African American author who warned that if racial justice was not achieved that violence would erupt in the streets. The Beatles The Beatles were a British Rock band who came to the United States in 1964. They have sold more albums in the United States than any other group. The Rolling Stones The Rolling Stones were a British Rock band who came to the United States in 1964. Their song “Satisfaction” became an anthem for the decade of the 1960s. The Marshall Plan The Marshall plan provided aid to war-torn countries in Europe during the post World War II period. The Black Panthers The Black Panthers was a group was formed in the late 1960s with an emphasis placed on “BLACK POWER” The Warren Commission The Warren Commission was a group was ordered to investigate the murder of President John F. Kennedy. They concluded that a lone assassin killed the President. This conclusion has been debated by many. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) This group was founded in 1957 by Martin Luther King Jr. –It advocated peaceful, non-violent protests. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)This group was founded in 1909-10 and worked to improve civil rights by means of using the court system. Freedom Riders Freedom Riders were groups of young people who would travel together interracially on busses in order to de-segregate the South. Hot War Hot War This refers to armed conflicts where people are killed (i.e. Korea/Vietnam) The Iron Curtain The Iron Curtain was a phrase was coined by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the division between the Communists and Non-Communists particularly in Europe. The Cold War The Cold War This refers to the philosophical struggle between the United States (Democracy) and the USSR (Communism) from 1945 until the early 1990s. The Cuban Missile Crisis The Cuban Missile Crisis This event took place in October of 1962. It involved a confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over issues in Cuba. The Domino Theory The Domino Theory This premise held that if one country fell to Communism all of the surrounding countries would fall as well The Bay of Pigs Invasion The Bay of Pigs Invasion This military action took place in 1961 in Cuba. Cuban exiles attempted to retake the country from the Communist Fidel Castro The U.S. failed to provide air support for the exiles which resulted in their defeat. The G.I. Bill The G.I. Bill This provided low interest loans and money for education for returning war veterans. The Magic Bullet The Magic Bullet A key part of the Warren Report, this supposedly caused seven wounds on President Kennedy and Texas governor John Connally The Baby Boom The Baby Boom was a population explosion of 25 million between 1946-1952. Sin Ins Sit ins-were a type of protest used often in the Civil Rights and Free Speech Movements. The Kitchen Debates The Kitchen Debates These informal discussions pitted the merits of Communism versus Democracy. The March on Washington D.C. The March on Washington D.C. This Civil Rights event culminated in a rousing “I Have a Dream” speechby Martin Luther King Jr. Sputnik Sputnik This satellite was launched by the USSR in October of 1957—This began the Space Race. The Tet Offensive The Tet Offensive This military action took place in Vietnam in 1968. Though it was a military victory for the U.S. it showed the American people that the war was not going well and was a psychological lift to the North Vietnamese/Vietcong. Dejure Segregation Dejure Segregation is segregation by law. Found most commonly in the South. Defacto Segregation Defacto Segregation refers to segregation by fact. Found most commonly in the North. Why was there such a different reception for Korean War veterans than World War II veterans? (The Century—Best Years) What was a blacklist? How did political witch-hunts result in these lists? (The Century—Best Years) Discuss gender roles in the 1950s. Why were these roles so rigid? How have these roles changed? How have they remained similar? (The Century—Happy Daze) Rock-n-roll debuted in the 1950s and caused consternation among some of the older generation. Why were traditionalists so concerned about the effects of rock-n-roll? (The Century— Happy Daze) The early 1960s were unique in that it was truly a youth culture. Discuss some ways in which this is evident (The Century—Poisoned Dreams) What is a "cold warrior?" How were both John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon cold warriors? (The Century—Poisoned Dreams) Discuss the role of television in the 1960 presidential election (The Century—Poisoned Dreams) The era of student protest began at University of California, Berkeley. What prompted these student protests? (The Century—Unpinned) How and why did the United States get involved in the Vietnam War? (The Century—Unpinned) How was the counterculture symbolic of the generational conflicts in America in the 1960s? (The Century—Unpinned) The actions of the Women's Liberation Movement broke many of the gender boundaries and taboos of earlier eras. How did the Civil Rights Movement influence this movement? (The Century— Unpinned) Discuss the role of television in the Vietnam War. (The Century—Unpinned) Discuss the class antagonisms of the Vietnam War and the war protests. (The Century—Unpinned) Essay Question Options A and B (You will answer A or B) Question A (Chapter 27 in your text) as well as Happy Daze/Poisoned Dreams/Unpinned) Both Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X were bold leaders who called for equality for black Americans. However they differed in their approach. Within your essay, explain the following: A. How did each leader feel that equality should be achieved? B. Where did each leader get their concepts from? C. Which method do you believe was best and why? Question B It can be argued that the Civil Rights Movement within the United states was a nearly 100 year process spanning the time from the end of the Civil War and the Reconstruction Era to the passage of legislation in the 1960's. Use the following terms to help describe the history of the Civil Rights movement from 1865 to 1965: 13th Amendment, 14th Amendment, 15th Amendment, Black Codes, KKK, Jim Crow Laws, Plessy Vs. Ferguson (Separate but Equal), Brown vs. Board of Education (integration of Public School facilities) Little Rock Nine, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965. Question C. (3 options--Choose one of the three).—Info from various documentaries/discussion about the JFK Assassination Write an essay in which you act as Lee Harvey Oswald’s defense attorney. Within your presentation, outline the evidence that leads to the conclusion that Oswald did not assassinate John F. Kennedy. You should have AT LEAST THREE major arguments in Oswald’s defense. Complete an essay in which you outline and discuss which conspiracy theory holds the most credibility. Explain the major tenets of the theory and then explain why you feel that the theory has credibility. Be sure to back up your arguments with facts and examples. Write an essay in which you act as the prosecuting attorney against Lee Harvey Oswald. Within your presentation, outline the evidence that leads to the conclusion that Oswald was the lone assassin and responsible for the death of President Kennedy. You should have AT LEAST THREE major arguments in your prosecution of Oswald. Video/Website Links • Return to my U.S. History page and scroll down for links to videos/websites.