Review for 1945-1969 Test

Review for 1945-1969 Test
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy was elected President in 1960. He
was president during the Bay of
Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Assassinated on November
22nd 1963.
William J. Levitt
William J. Levitt was responsible for bringing the
“assembly line” process
to home building during the post World War II era.
Richard M. Nixon
Richard M. Nixon ran for president in 1960. He
was elected president in 1968. He eventually was
forced to resign office in 1974 as a result of the
Watergate Scandal
Joseph McCarthy
Joseph McCarthy Senator who conducted political
“witch hunts” in the 1950s seeking to show
Communist influence in American society.
Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy was a Massachusetts Senator
(younger brother of JFK) who was assassinated in
1968 during the Democratic national primary.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were a couple that
were convicted of spying for the USSR—and
Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev was Leader of the USSR from
1953-1964. Dealt with Nixon in the Kitchen
Debates as well as with JFK during the Cuban
Missile Crisis.
Muhammad Ali
Muhammad Ali was a talented boxer who caused
controversy by refusing to serve
in Vietnam.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower was a former World War II
General. Served as President of the
United States from 1953-1961 (elected in ’52 and
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson was Vice President under John F.
Kennedy. Came to power in
1963 following the death of JFK. Elected by a landslide
in 1964. Known for passage of Civil Rights Laws as well
as for escalation of the Vietnam War.
Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald was the Alleged assassin of
President John F. Kennedy. He was killed by a
nightclub owner, Jack Ruby 2 days after the murder
of President Kennedy.
Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur was a World War II and Korean
War General who was fired by
President Truman for insubordination. He and
Truman disagreed about
using the atom bomb on Korea and China.
J.D. Tippit
J.D. Tippit was a Dallas Police officer allegedly
killed by Lee Harvey Oswald.
Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley was the “King” of Rock and Roll. He
emerged on the music
scene in the 1950’s and was a cultural icon until his
death in 1977.
Jack Ruby
Jack Ruby was a Dallas nightclub owner with ties to
crime. He gunned down Lee Harvey Oswald on
national television.
The Little Rock 9
The Little Rock 9 were African American students
in Arkansas who had to have
a military escort to attend classes at Central High
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was Civil Rights leader who
made a name for himself during
the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Dr King promoted
change through
non-violent methods.
Malcolm X
Malcolm X was a Civil Rights leader who
advocated equality and segregation
by any means necessary (including violence).
Elijah Muhammad
Elijah Muhammad was the Founder of the Nation
of Islam. His teachings influenced Malcolm X.
James Baldwin
James Baldwin was an African American author
who warned that if racial justice
was not achieved that violence would erupt in the
The Beatles
The Beatles were a British Rock band who came to
the United States in 1964.
They have sold more albums in the United States
than any other group.
The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones were a British Rock band who
came to the United States in 1964.
Their song “Satisfaction” became an anthem for
the decade of the 1960s.
The Marshall Plan
The Marshall plan provided aid to war-torn
countries in Europe during
the post World War II period.
The Black Panthers
The Black Panthers was a group was formed in the
late 1960s with an emphasis
placed on “BLACK POWER”
The Warren Commission
The Warren Commission was a group was ordered
to investigate the murder of President John F.
Kennedy. They concluded that a lone assassin
killed the President. This conclusion has been
debated by many.
The Southern Christian
Leadership Conference (SCLC)
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC) This group was founded in 1957 by Martin
Luther King Jr. –It advocated peaceful, non-violent
The National Association for
the Advancement of
Colored People (NAACP)
The National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People (NAACP)This group was founded in
1909-10 and worked to improve civil rights by
means of using the court system.
Freedom Riders
Freedom Riders were groups of young people who
would travel together
interracially on busses in order to de-segregate the
Hot War
Hot War This refers to armed conflicts where
people are killed (i.e. Korea/Vietnam)
The Iron Curtain
The Iron Curtain was a phrase was coined by
British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill to describe the division between
the Communists
and Non-Communists particularly in Europe.
The Cold War
The Cold War This refers to the philosophical struggle
between the
United States (Democracy) and the USSR
(Communism) from 1945
until the early 1990s.
The Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban Missile Crisis This event took place in
October of 1962. It involved a
confrontation between the United States and the
Soviet Union over
issues in Cuba.
The Domino Theory
The Domino Theory This premise held that if one
country fell to Communism
all of the surrounding countries would fall as well
The Bay of Pigs Invasion
The Bay of Pigs Invasion This military action took place in
1961 in Cuba. Cuban
exiles attempted to retake the country from the Communist
Fidel Castro
The U.S. failed to provide air support for the exiles which
resulted in their
The G.I. Bill
The G.I. Bill This provided low interest loans and
money for education
for returning war veterans.
The Magic Bullet
The Magic Bullet A key part of the Warren Report,
this supposedly caused
seven wounds on President Kennedy and Texas
governor John Connally
The Baby Boom
The Baby Boom was a population explosion of 25
million between 1946-1952.
Sin Ins
Sit ins-were a type of protest used often in the Civil
Rights and
Free Speech Movements.
The Kitchen Debates
The Kitchen Debates These informal discussions
pitted the merits of Communism
versus Democracy.
The March on Washington
The March on Washington D.C. This Civil Rights
event culminated in a rousing “I Have a Dream”
speechby Martin Luther King Jr.
Sputnik This satellite was launched by the USSR in
October of 1957—This began the Space Race.
The Tet Offensive
The Tet Offensive This military action took place in
Vietnam in 1968.
Though it was a military victory for the U.S. it showed
the American people that the war was not going well
and was a psychological lift to the North
Dejure Segregation
Dejure Segregation is segregation by law. Found
most commonly in the South.
Defacto Segregation
Defacto Segregation refers to segregation by fact.
Found most commonly in the North.
Why was there such a different reception for
Korean War veterans than World War II veterans?
(The Century—Best Years)
What was a blacklist? How did political witch-hunts
result in these lists? (The Century—Best Years)
Discuss gender roles in the 1950s. Why were these
roles so rigid? How have these roles changed? How
have they remained similar? (The Century—Happy
Rock-n-roll debuted in the 1950s and caused
consternation among some of the older
generation. Why were traditionalists so concerned
about the effects of rock-n-roll? (The Century—
Happy Daze)
The early 1960s were unique in that it was truly a
youth culture. Discuss some ways in which this is
evident (The Century—Poisoned Dreams)
What is a "cold warrior?" How were both John F.
Kennedy and Richard Nixon cold warriors? (The
Century—Poisoned Dreams)
Discuss the role of television in the 1960
presidential election (The Century—Poisoned
The era of student protest began at University of
California, Berkeley. What prompted these student
protests? (The Century—Unpinned)
How and why did the United States get involved in
the Vietnam War? (The Century—Unpinned)
How was the counterculture symbolic of the
generational conflicts in America in the 1960s?
(The Century—Unpinned)
The actions of the Women's Liberation Movement
broke many of the gender boundaries and taboos
of earlier eras. How did the Civil Rights Movement
influence this movement? (The Century—
Discuss the role of television in the Vietnam War.
(The Century—Unpinned)
Discuss the class antagonisms of the Vietnam War
and the war protests. (The Century—Unpinned)
Essay Question Options A and B (You will answer A or B)
Question A (Chapter 27 in your text) as well as Happy Daze/Poisoned Dreams/Unpinned)
Both Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X were bold leaders who called for equality for
black Americans. However they differed in their approach. Within your essay, explain the
A. How did each leader feel that equality should be achieved?
B. Where did each leader get their concepts from?
C. Which method do you believe was best and why?
Question B
It can be argued that the Civil Rights Movement within the United states was a nearly 100
year process spanning the time from the end of the Civil War and the Reconstruction Era to
the passage of legislation in the 1960's. Use the following terms to help describe the
history of the Civil Rights movement from 1865 to 1965: 13th Amendment, 14th
Amendment, 15th Amendment, Black Codes, KKK, Jim Crow Laws, Plessy Vs. Ferguson
(Separate but Equal), Brown vs. Board of Education (integration of Public School facilities)
Little Rock Nine, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Question C. (3 options--Choose one of the three).—Info from various
documentaries/discussion about the JFK Assassination
Write an essay in which you act as Lee Harvey Oswald’s defense attorney.
Within your presentation, outline the evidence that leads to the conclusion
that Oswald did not assassinate John F. Kennedy. You should have AT
LEAST THREE major arguments in Oswald’s defense.
Complete an essay in which you outline and discuss which conspiracy
theory holds the most credibility. Explain the major tenets of the theory
and then explain why you feel that the theory has credibility. Be sure to
back up your arguments with facts and examples.
Write an essay in which you act as the prosecuting attorney against Lee
Harvey Oswald. Within your presentation, outline the evidence that leads
to the conclusion that Oswald was the lone assassin and responsible for
the death of President Kennedy. You should have AT LEAST THREE major
arguments in your prosecution of Oswald.
Video/Website Links
• Return to my U.S. History page and scroll
down for links to videos/websites.