Religious Reformations in Western Europe The Protestant, Counter & Catholic Reformations Causes of the Protestant Reformation • Church Weaknesses: Corruption within Church shattered Christian unity. • Economic: Like other political rules, Popes and other clergy maintained a lavish lifestyle (could afford patronage of the arts). • Political: Church became caught up in worldly affairs. Popes competed with Italian princes for political power. Indulgences • To finance projects intended to beautify churches the Church increased fees for services such as marriages and baptisms. • Some clergy promoted sale of indulgences. An indulgence was a lessening of the time a soul would spend in purgatory. • In the Middle Ages, indulgences were granted for good deeds, like fighting in the Crusades. By the late 1400s, indulgences could also be obtained in exchange for money gifts to the Church. Martin Luther’s Protest • In 1517, protests against such practices in the Church escalated into full-on revolt. • The revolt was triggered by a German monk by the name of Martin Luther. • Luther became disillusioned with the corruption and worldliness of the Church. • A particular incident in the town of Wittenberg prompted him to take action. Wittenberg: The Final Straw • In 1517, a priest named Johann Tetzel (in Wittenberg) began offering indulgences to any Christian who would contribute money to the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. • Claimed that the donation would ensure salvation for not only the donor, but all of their dead relatives as well. • For Luther, Tetzel’s actions were the last straw. 95 Theses • Tetzel’s actions prompted Luther to draw up 95 Theses, or arguments, against indulgences. • He argued that indulgences had no Biblical basis, that the pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory, and that Christians could be saved only through faith. • He posted these 95 Theses on the door of Wittenberg’s All Saints Church. Luther V. The Church • Copies of the 95 theses were printed and distributed throughout Europe where they stirred debate. • The Church called Luther to recant, or give up his views. He refused and developed even more radical doctrines. Urged Christians to reject the authority of Rome. • In 1521 the Church excommunicated Luther. Luther v Charles V • Charles V, the new Holy Roman emperor, summoned Luther to an assembly of German princes at Worms where he was asked again to recant. • When he refused, Charles declared him an outlaw and make it a crime for anyone to give him food or shelter. • Still, Luther had many powerful supporters and received haven from a prince in Wartburg. • Thousands of Europeans considered him a hero. They accepted his teachings, and renounced the authority of the Pope themselves. Luther’s Teachings: Adopted by Lutheran churches • Salvation achieved by faith alone. Not by good deeds. • Bible is the ultimate religious authority. Not Pope. • All people have equal access to God through faith and the Bible. • Rejected 5 of the 7 sacraments b/c Bible didn’t mention them. Banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages. • Simplified rituals of mass and emphasized sermons. • Permitted clergy to marry. Spread of Protestantism • Printing press helped spread Luther’s writings. • Luther’s followers began to call themselves Protestants because they protested papal authority. • Many clergy supported Luther because they saw his reforms as an answer to Church corruption. • Other supported Luther because they were tired of German money going to support churches and clergy in Italy. The Peace of Augsburg • In 1555, The Peace of Augsburg was drafted. • Allowed each German prince to decide which religion (Catholic or Lutheran) would be followed in his lands. • Most northern German states chose Lutheranism. Most southern German states remained Catholic. John Calvin • Follower of Luther who provided advice on how to organize and run a Protestant church in his book, Institutes of the Christian Religion. • In 1541, Calvin set up a theocracy, or government run by church leaders in Geneva, Switzerland. • Calvinists saw themselves as a new “chosen people” entrusted by God to build a truly Christian society. Focused on strict morality. John Calvin • Views – Predestination: his idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation. Saints & sinners. Calvinists believed only the saved could live truly Christian lives. – Salvation gained through faith – Bible was source of religious truth Spread of Calvinism • As Calvinism spread through Europe, conflict erupted • War erupted in France between French Calvinists, called Huguenots, and Catholics. • Conflict in Germany between Lutherans, Catholics, and Calvinists. • In Scotland, John Knox led a Calvinist rebellion and overthrew the Catholic queen, Mary of Guise to set up the Scottish Presbyterian Church. The English Reformation • In England, religious leaders sought church reform dating back to the 1300s. • By the 1520s, English clergy were allured by Protestant ideas. • England did not officially break from the Catholic Church until 1527. This break resulted not from actions of religious leaders, but was a decision made by King Henry VIII. Why the English Reformation? Drama with the baby mama! • At first, Henry denounced Protestantism. • In 1527 an issue arose that set Henry at odds with the Church. • After 18 years of marriage, Henry and his 1st wife, Catherine of Aragon, had only one surviving child, Mary Tudor. • He wanted a male heir to the throne and thought the lovely Anne Boleyn could bear one. And the plot thickens… • Henry wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon so he could marry Anne Boleyn, but Catholic law did not permit divorce. • Henry asked the pope to annul, or cancel his marriage to Catherine, but the pope refused. • A furious Henry officially split from the Catholic Church, and started his own church, The Church of England (Anglican Church). • Henry appointed Thomas Cranmer archbishop and Cranmer then annulled the king’s marriage and he then married Anne Boleyn, who bore him yet another daughter, Elizabeth I. Henry VIII and his 6 wives • After beheading Anne Boleyn (who never produced a living male heir) Henry married 4 more wives. • Jane Seymour was the only wife who bore him a son, who died at age 16. Six Wives of Henry VIII SIX WIVES OF HENRY VIII kATHATRINE OF ARAGON ANNE BOLEYN JANE SEYMOUR KATHARINE OF PAAR kATHARINE HOWARD ANNE OF CLEVES The Tudor Dynasty • After 6 marriages, Henry VIII produced only one male heir, Edward VI who died shortly after his coronation. • His daughter, Mary Tudor became Queen. (daughter of 1st wife Catherine of Aragon) • After Mary’s death, Henry’s other daughter Elizabeth I became Queen. (daughter of Anne Boleyn). Bloody Mary “undoes” the English Reformation • When Mary I came to throne, she shut down the Church of England, and reinstated Catholicism as the official religion. • By now, Protestantism was deeply entrenched in England and her actions were met with resistance. • Her solution was to execute those who refused to convert back to Catholicism, which earned her then name “Bloody Mary.” Queen Elizabeth I Bringin’ Protestantism Back • After Mary I died, her younger sister Elizabeth I took the throne and reinstated the Church of England (Anglican Church). • Unlike her sister Mary, Elizabeth was willing to compromise. She provided that much of Catholic ritual and ceremony was preserved, but returned authority of the church to the monarchy, not the pope. She became head of the Anglican Church and arguably one of England’s greatest rulers. From then on, England was a Protestant nation. The Catholic Counter-Reformation • As the Protestant Reformation swept across Europe a reform movement began in the Catholic Church in response. • Pope Paul III set out to revive the authority of the Church • To establish the course of Catholic reform, he organized the Council of Trent which met first in 1545, and continued to meet for the next 20 years. Council of Trent (1545-1563) Catholic Reformation: Internal Reforms at Council of Trent • Reaffirmed the importance of the clergy but set out to end abuses and corruption. • Created seminaries for priests. Taught them to challenge Protestant teachings. • Good Works AND Faith for Salvation • Bible was major source of religious truth, but not the only source. • Reformed the sales of indulgences. Counter Reformation: External Reforms • Created an Index of Forbidden Books: included books by Luther and Calvin. • Reactivated the Inquisition: used torture and execution to root out heresy. • Elevated the importance of Society of Jesus (Jesuits) created by Ignatius Loyola. Jesuits set out to combat heresy and spread the Catholic faith. Jesuits set up missionaries around the world. Christian on Christian Violence • Despite these measures, Europe remained divided into a Catholic south (Italy, Spain, France, southern Germany) and Protestant north (northern Germany, Netherlands, England). • Both Catholics and Protestants fostered intolerance. Catholics mobs attacked and killed Protestants. Protestants killed Catholic priests and wrecked Catholic churches. (iconoclasm) Hunting for Witches • At this time most people believed in magic and spirits. They saw a close link between magic and heresy. • They blamed witches for heresy. Witches were really social outcasts who became scapegoats. People wanted to blame the religious turmoil on someone. “Witches” and Jews were their scapegoats. Who were witches? • Beggars, poor widows, midwives blamed for infant deaths, and herbalists whose potions were seen as satanic were the people typically accused of witchcraft. • Most witch hunt victims died in Germany, Switzerland, and France, which were all centers of religious conflict. When religious wars declined so did the witch hunts. Jewish Persecution • In 1516 the Jews of Venice were forced to live in a separate quarter of the city called a ghetto. Other Italian cities followed and forced Jews into walled ghettos. • At first, Martin Luther had hoped that Jews would be converted by his teachings. When they didn’t he called for them to be expelled from Christian lands and for synagogues and books to be burned. Many Jews forced out of Germany at this point. • After this point, Jews were only accepted in Poland, Lithuania, and the Netherlands. Baroque Art Originally part of the Counter Reformation but Quickly Used to Glorify Monarchs Images from: Corbis.com Web Gallary of Art www.wga.hu Ellis, E.G., & Esler. (2005). A. World History: Connections to Today. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.