Cluster 1: Geographic Literacy Part A

Assignment #1
Mind Map of Canada
• On a blank sheet of paper, draw a map of Canada
as close to reality as possible. Do this on your
own – without looking at other people’s maps or
any reference material such as an atlas.
• On your map, label features such as provincial
boundaries, provinces, cities, mountain ranges,
and bodies of water.
Does your map resemble the following map of Canada?
Mind Map of Canada
1. Which parts of Canada do you know best?
2. Which parts of your map are most incomplete?
3. Do you feel it is important to know where places
are in Canada? Explain.
Cluster 1:
Ms. Smaluck
Unit 1
Topics Covered
• What is geography?
• Physical/Human Geography
• These notes are for you! Not me!
• These notes will be used for “note quizzes”, which
are open book. If you don’t have your notes, good
What is Geography?
Geography is the study of the earth’s physical and human
systems along with the relationships/connections among them.
When studying any discipline of geo, various skills and tools are
Things like maps
air photos
satellite images
along with working with scales, distances and directions have long
been used to study the earth.
What is Geography
• New tools, such as
– Global positioning system (GPS) receivers
– Geographic information systems (GIS)
• Software now allow geographers to create maps
and manipulate and interpret data to better study
and understand the world around us and our
place/role in it.
What is Geography?
Geographers try to answer three questions:
• Where are things located on Earth?
• What are the connections between people and the
• How can we illustrate or explain this information to
understand it better?
Geography has two main focuses:
1. The Earth’s physical geography (natural things)
2. The Earth’s human geography (people and things
related to people such as cities)
1. Physical Geography
• It includes the study of landforms, vegetation and climates of the
• Knowledge of landforms, (plains, mountains, etc.) is helpful in
determining what the land may be used for, (agriculture, construction
of roads/railways)
• Vegetation refers to natural vegetation, which is plant life that would
grow in an area without human influence, (forests, grasslands).
• Knowledge of climate, which includes temperature and precipitation,
is important in the planning of various human activities, (farming,
1. Physical Geography
• Includes the knowledge of natural resources and where they are
located. Some understanding of the types of rocks and minerals and
how they formed, helps us predict where the minerals may be found
and how they can be mined and used.
• Knowledge of natural resources helps in the understanding of the
development of various industries and their locations, because having
some kind of natural resource is often a major factor in determining
where people will live.
• Includes the study of natural processes and human caused events
(erosion, earthquakes, volcanic activity, floods) that shape and
change the landforms and affect human life and activities. Developing
a better understanding of the interrelationships or connections
between the physical environment and human activities may help
lesson or prevent some disasters.
2. Human Geography
• It deals with human presence, activities and impacts on the
natural environment.
• It includes the study of
Migration and distribution
Economic activities
Settlement patterns
Modification of the environment by humans
2. Human Geography
• The impact of early human societies on the
natural environment was minimal because small
nomadic populations existed. They survived by
fishing, hunting, and gathering off the land. Tools
and dwelling were “simple”, made from the natural
materials (wood, stone, bone).
2. Human Geography
• With the domestication of plants and animals, greater changes were
made to the physical environment. Land was cleared of trees and
grasses for agriculture and permanent homes.
• The rise of agriculture, resource extraction and manufacturing
activities led to more complex economic and political systems.
Transportation networks were needed, political boundaries were
established and larger permanent societies developed, changing the
natural environment.
• One of the greatest challenges faced by humans today is how to
manage the use of energy resources. It must be done in a
sustainable fashion without causing permanent damage to the
environment in the form of land, air, water pollution and climate
Basic Tools
Topics Covered
1. Map Projection/ Mercator Projection/ Equal-Area
2. Features of a map
3. Scale (Map Scale)
4. Types of Maps
Map Projection
• A method used to transfer features of the globe onto a
flat surface.
– 3 important things to remember about the different kinds of
map projections are;
Each projection has certain characteristics that make it useful for a
specific purpose.
Each projection has some kind of distortion, such as enlarging
some areas and shrinking others, or providing inaccurate
A map projection should be used only for the purpose for which it
was designed.
1. Mercator Projection
• A type of map projection in which compass bearings are
correct, making it useful for marine or navigator charts,
however, it generally distorts distances, areas and shapes of
the land masses and oceans.
• A problem with the mercator projection, according to
representatives at the United Nations was;
– It made countries near the equator appear smaller in size, while
those closer to the poles appeared larger in size.
– Many representatives of the tropical countries felt the importance of
their countries had been underestimated because they appeared
smaller on the maps, than they actually were.
2. Equal – Area Projection
• A map projection used by most nations and
international organizations in which the correct
sizes of all countries are shown in relation to one
another, avoiding most size distortion.
What is a Map?
• A map is a representation of the Earth’s features
drawn on a flat surface.
• Maps use symbols and colours to represent
features of an area, simplifying the real world.
P olitical Regions
Northw est
New foundland and
Nunav ut
v ut
Columb Alberta
rtaSaskatchew an
Prince Edw ard
Nov a Scotia
New Brunsw ick
Features on a Map
• Title – identifies the area shown, topic, focus of the map.
• Legend – explains the meaning of symbols and colours
used on the map.
• Scale – compares distance on the map with actual distance
on the earth’s surface.
• Date of Publication – indicates how recent the map is
• Direction – represented by either a direction arrow/symbol
or by the use of latitude and longitude.
• Border – sets the map apart from other information
Map Labelling & Colouring
• Cartography is the art of drawing accurate, easily
readable, attractive maps.
• Labels
– Should be neatly printed
– Should be spelled correctly
– Should be parallel to the base of the map (except for
natural features such as rivers and mountain ranges)
– A dot should be used to locate cities, with the name of
the city as close to the dot as possible.
Map Labelling & Colouring
• Labels (continued)
– Larger features usually have larger labels
– Labels for similar features should be the same size
and font – for example:
• Water Body
• City
– Labels should not block other information on the map
Map Labelling & Colouring
• Colouring
– Maps should be properly colour coded to show the
different areas on the map
– Shade consistently so that there are no light or dark
patches of one colour within one feature
– Use solid colours only, not shading patterns
– White or black are not acceptable shading colours
– Grey should be used for areas not important to the
– Blue should only be used for water bodies
Scale (Map Scale)
• Scale is a measurement on a map that represents
an actual distance on the earth’s surface.
• The 2 general categories of maps, according to
scale-use are;
– Large-scale Maps
– Small-scale Maps
1. Large-scale maps
maps that show a large amount of detail of a small area,
such as a map with a scale of 1:50 000 or 1:25 000. ( 1cm
on the map represents 50 000 cm on the earth’s surface)
1. Small-scale maps
maps that how a small amount of detail of a large area,
such as a map with a scale of 1:250 000 or 1:500 000.
Used for general details such as political, physical and
economic information.
Scale (Map Scale)
A lot
(streets, schools,
railways, …)
maps, road maps,
city bus maps
A little
(borders, lakes,
large rivers, …)
Globes, world
maps, atlases
Large Scale
Small Scale
Scale – Mapping Our Location
• Anderson Collegiate Map
Scale – Mapping Our Location
• Anderson Community Map
Scale – Mapping Our Location
• Town of Whitby Map
Scale – Mapping Our Location
• Region of Durham Map
Scale – Mapping Our Location
• Southern Ontario Map
Scale – Mapping Our Location
• Ontario Map
Scale – Mapping Our Location
• Canada Map
Scale – Mapping Our Location
• World Map
3 “Broad” headings of maps
1. General-purpose Maps
2. Thematic Maps
3. Topographic Maps
1. General-purpose Maps
• Maps that contain many different types of information on them.
May show things like; bodies of water, roads, railway lines, parks,
elevation, towns and cities.
• They give a broad understanding of the location and features of
an area.
General-purpose Maps
2. Thematic Maps
– Maps that show information on one particular or specific topic or theme
(ex. climate, vegetation, pop.)
• Thematic
stations in
3. Topographic Map
– Large scale maps showing both natural and human made features. They
use symbols/colors to show a variety of features. (ex. mountains,
• Topographic
Map of Blue
Assignment #2 Create a Map
• Create a map from the Drcss to your house.
• Include; title, legend, scale, date of publication,
• Use color and BE NEAT!!
Assignment #3
Political Map of Canada
• Add to this map:
Capital cities
“Other” cities
6 map essentials
Different coloured
– First and last name
*You CAN use the same colour more than once, so long as it doesn’t touch a
province or territory with that same colour.
Drainage Map of Canada
• Add to this map:
– Oceans, Lakes, Rivers,
Bays, and Gulfs as
listed on your handout
– 6 map essentials
– Canada land coloured
– All water coloured blue
– All other land coloured
grey (or beige)
– First and last name
Places on a
Map and Using
Map Scales
Topics Covered
Compass Work
Times Zones/International Date Line
Map Scales
Two things when giving direction
1. Where you are
2. Where you want to go
Compass Work
• Compass points: are directions on a compass, north,
south, etc.
• Compass rose: a diagram in the shape of a flower, showing
directions, (compass points), and bearings, (measured clockwise
from north).
• Cardinal points: are the 4 principal points of a compass, north (N),
south (S), east (E), west (W).
• Ordinal points: are the secondary points of a compass, found half
way between the 4 principal points, north- east (NE), north-west
(NW), south-east (SE), south-west (SW).
Compass Work
• Compass bearings: degrees on a compass, measure in a
clockwise direction from 0’ (north) to 360’. (0’ and 360’ are
the same point on the compass.
Alphanumeric Grid
• Alphanumeric grid: is a grid that uses letters and
numerals to identify squares of a grid pattern on a
map, used to help find location. The grid squares
are identified by a letter on one side of the map
and a number on another side. *Letter/#
• Latitude: the distance north/south of the equator, measured
in degrees.
• Equator is 0’, North/South Pole is 90’
• Longitude: the distance east/west of the Prime Meridian,
measured in degrees.
• Prime Meridian is 0’
• To find the location of a place on a map using latitude and
• One finds the location at the intersection of a line of latitude and a
line of longitude.
• Global positioning system / (GPS): is a satellite navigation
system that is used to compute the exact latitude a longitude
position of any place on the earth.
• Some ways GPS technology is being used today are;
1. Environmentalists have been tracking wildlife.
1. Shipping companies use it to monitor the progress of delivery
1. Some automobiles have onboard maps to show current
locations and provide directions.
Time Zone
• A division of the earth’s surface, usually extending across 15’
longitude that establishes a uniform time. Usually everything within
that 15’ has the same time, with a one hour difference between each
• Standard time: the “same” time which all places within a time zone
Lines on the Earth
• Time Zones
There are 6 time
zones in Canada
Time Zone
• The time zone system proposed by Canada’s Sir Stanford
Fleming works as follows;
– The prime meridian, (0’ or 0 meridian), is the center of a time zone
extending 7.5 degrees on either side. Time in this zone is called
universal time, with the standard time in the other zones
compared to it.
– Since the earth rotates form west to east, time zones east of the
prime meridian have times that are ahead of the universal time, by
the correct interval, while time zones west of the primer meridian
have times behind the universal time, by the correct interval.
Time Zones
• Countries often modify the shapes of time zones;
– For political reasons, as it is more convenient to have
all the country, provinces or city in one time zone.
International Date Line
A line which generally follows the 180’ line of longitude , where one day
ends and the next day begins. It will zigzag to avoid dividing land
masses or islands belong to a country.
As one crosses the date line, westward, (going west), a day is added,
while as one crosses it eastward, a day is subtracted.
3 different ways in which scales can
be represented on a map
1. Direct statement scale
A scale in which words are used to describe the relationship between a
distance on a map and specific distance on the earth’s surface.
Ex. 1 cm to 10 km (1cm = 10 km)
2. Line scale
A scale where a line is divided into units that represent the actual units on
the ground.
Ex. ________________
3. Representative fraction scale (R.F)
Is a scale given as a ration of the distance on the map of the distance on
the ground. One unit on the map represents a certain number of the same
units on the earth’s surface, with the units being any measure (cm inches,
Ex. 1:50 000 (1 cm = 50 000 cm)
• A positive and negative point about R.F scale is;
– Positive: it is practical, as everyone all over the world
can use it, regardless of the units of measurement use
by the country.
– Negative: not very useful when we want to indicate
“actual” distances between places, as we often deal
with the larger unit measurement such as kilometers,
miles, etc. and scale conversion is needed.
Sensing: Views
from Space
Topics Covered
Remotes Sensing
Ways to collect data using satellites
• Satellite – a manufactured object
that is launched by a rocket and
circles the earth.
– Used to communicate, to study the
earth’s resources and to aid military
• Remote Sensing – is the study of the characteristics of the
earth using photographs and electronic images taken from
aircraft and satellites.
• The difference between the 2 types of remote sensing used
to study the earth is;
The satellite images cover a large area and show less detail, while
aerial photographs taken from the airplane show more detail of a
smaller area.
2 Types of orbits in which
satellites can be placed into are;
1. Geostationary Orbit
• The satellite is 36 000 km above the earth and moving at
the same speed as the earth’s rotation, which keeps it
exactly over the same place on the earth.
This provides an almost continuous observation of the
earth’s changing weather for that location.
1. North-South Orbit
The satellite moves north to south and vice versa and
appears to shift westward with each orbit because the
earth is rotating from west to east.
The combination of the 2 movements allows the complete
coverage of the earth’s surface over a period of time,
called the “orbit cycle”.
• Landsat (land satellite)(USA) and SPOT
(European) satellites examine the earth’s surface;
– During daylight hours with different ranges of
wavelengths, which show different characteristics of
the earth’s surface.
– For examples, some are used to identify types of
vegetation, while others identify soil moisture
• False Colours – are colours that artificially added
to satellite images of the earth to make patterns
they detect more obvious. These colours would
not actually be seen from space.
– Pg. 64 of textbook
Canada’s Radarsat
• The first advanced earth observation satellite used by Canada to
monitor environmental changes and provide information for
resource development.
• Sends radar or microwave signals to the earth and records the
microwaves reflected back. It then sends this data for processing
to receiving stations of the ground, located at Gatineau, QC,
Prince Albert, SK, and Fairbanks Alaska. When it is out of range of
these stations, it stores the data on tape for later transmission.
• The radar is electronically programmed with a
choice of 7 different beam modes, (giving levels
of detail and swath/area widths), and the beams
can be pointed at different angles.
• Radarsat does not rely on sunlight to illuminate
the earth’s surface, so it can make images 24
hours a day, under any weather conditions, as its
signal can penetrate clouds, rain and fog.
Ways data is collected through
remote sensing
1. To study weather and climate
– development and movement of storms
1. Agricultural management
– crop types and growth
1. Land-cover classification and forest management
–forest inventory , assessing fire damage
1. Map making and updating
– update legal boundaries, urban expansion
1. Geology and mineral exploration
6. Mapping sea ice patterns
- plotting safe ship routes,
7. Monitor the environment
- locate pollution and effects, study wildlife habitats
8. Monitor oceans and coastal regions
- oil spills, assess fish stock
9. Analyze water resources
- monitor floods, snow thickness
10. Study the impact of geologic events
- earthquakes, volcanic eruption
• Seismologist – a scientist who studies earthquakes or
similar disturbances and the effect they produce on the
earth’s crust.
• Convection – a process by which a heated fluid rises and
carries the heat with it, it is then replaced by a cool fluid
which in turn is heated and rises, creating a flow of material
• Erosion – the wearing away of the earth’s surface followed
by the movement to other locations of materials that have
worn away. Agents or forces involved are wind, rain, running
water, and ice.
Fossils – are imprints in rock of the remains
of a plant or animal that lived millions of years ago.
Folding – the bucking or bending of rock layers usually occurs
when great pressures occur deep in the earth’s core and the
movement of the earth’s plates.
• Faulting – the movement along a crack or cracks
in the earth’s crust. Involves great pressures in
the earth and movement of the earth’s plates,
causing land to rise up or fall down.
• Sediments – eroded material that is deposited by water,
wind, or ice. Small , fine particles of sand, silt, clay, etc.
• Bedrock – is the solid rock portion of the
earth, beneath the soil. Often called the
foundation or basement rock.
• Ice Age – a period of time when freezing temperatures
created ice sheets across the continents.
• Glaciers – slow moving mass or sheets of ice.
2 Theories Position of the Continents
1. Continental Drift Theory:
A theory stating that 300 million years ago,
all of the earth’s land masses, which were in
constant movement, collided to form 1 super
continent called Pangia.
Then about 200 million years ago, it broke apart and the
continent drifted in different directions, to their present day
It was believed that only the continents moved/drifted.
2. Plate Tectonic Theory:
A theory stating that the earth’s outer
shell is made up of about 20 plates, most
made up of continents and oceans.
These plates are slowly moving over a weak layer of hot rock, far
below the earth’s surface.
It is believed that unequal distribution of heat within the earth cause
convection currents to move the plates, which have caused the
continents to move to where they are today.
One should note that the continents are still moving a centimeter or
so each year.
3 Classifications of Rock
1. Igneous Rock - rock formed from the cooling and hardening
of molten rock (magma or lava).
2. Metamorphic Rock – rock formed when sedimentary and
igneous rocks are subjected to great heat and pressure.
Heat melts the rock, materials mix and pressure re-solidifies
or hardens the rock giving it different characteristics than
3. Sedimentary Rock – rock usually formed in layers from the
compression and hardening of sediments, over millions of