Paralanguage Definition •The nonverbal part of speech that involves aspects of the spoken message •The way the delivered message sounds and conveys meaning Components •Pitch •Volume •Rate •Quality •Intonation •Vocalized pauses Pitch • The highness or lowness of vocal tone • Applied in two ways: • Tone • Intonation Example •Deep Voice for the Gay Man •http://www.youtube.com/wa tch?v=ewqVFUVblSw •1:11-1:58 Tonal Languages • Each syllable has an inherent pitch contour • Many words are differentiated solely by tone, and each syllable in a multisyllabic word often carries its own tone • Includes: Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Most Sub-Saharan African Languages Mandarin Tone Guide Volume • TOO LOUD • Obnoxious, pushy, dominant • “more aggressive, dominant, and self-assured” (Page, 1978) • TOO SOFT • Timid, unsure of themselves Matilda (4:45) • What differences do you notice about the volume of Miss Trunchbull and Miss Honey’s voices? • Who appears to be the more dominant in the conversation? Who appears to be more timid? Study • “Sixty-three male and female college students listened to a tape-recorded interview in which they heard a female interviewee answer questions in either a low, moderate, or high voice volume” (Page, 1978) • High volume: perceived as most aggressive Rate of Speech • The speed at which a person speaks • Normal rate of speech is 150 wpm • There are negative effects on listeners for the rate of speech being too fast or too slow • Studies show that a slower speech rate increases listening comprehension (Pashek, G.V. & Brookshire, R.H, 1982) • Do not want to bore listeners by speaking too slowly though • Speakers may lose credibility in the eyes of their audience if their rate of speech is too slow Rate of Speech • The perceived importance of the information that is presented in a lecture decreases as the speech rate increases (Robinson et al., 1997) • If the rate of speech is too fast, listeners can lose the ability to understand the information presented • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bIaUfB jHjpI Discussion •At what speed is Boomhauer’s rate of speech? Fast, Slow, etc……? •How did his rate of speech affect the listener’s comprehension? Quality • Vividness of hue • The identifying character of a vowel sound determined chiefly by the resonance of the person uttering it (Merriam Webster’s Encyclopedia) • The way the melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic materials are combined in a composition • An inherent or distinguishing character (Wikipedia) Hannah Montana • One example of quality of voice Intonation • Intonation is the inflection in one’s voice. • No intonation = monotone • Too much intonation = distracting Context and Intonation • Context and intonation are interrelated- they are both interpreted together to decode meaning from a message (Woodland & Voyer, 2011). According to a study done by Woodland and Voyer in 2011: • Speaker said either a positive or negative statement with either sarcastic or sincere tone • “Statements paired with an incongruent tone of voice tended to reflect a response from the participant that was closer to “neutral” on the scale rather than either sincere or sarcastic.” Positive statement + sarcastic tone = neutral message Ben Stein • What made Ferris’s teacher so hard to pay attention to? • If a person had too much intonation, what kind of message would this convey about the idea they are trying to communicate or about the person’s personality? Vocalized Pauses • A pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as uh, er, and, um (public speaking tips website) • Vocalization- to produce with voice • My definition: A pause in a fluid speech in which the speaker uses filler words to complete the silence 10 Steps to Stop Using word “Like” • Know how it is used • Pause • Record yourself • Stop using “like” when quoting someone • Don’t use “like” to approximate • Stop using it before adjectives and adverbs • Improve your vocabulary • Quit using it altogether • See how long you can go without saying “like” (wiki how website) Vocalized Pauses • When used repeatedly, vocalized pauses are irritating to listeners and unnerving to the speaker • In one study, “vocalized pauses and repetitions were employed as categories of verbal disturbance likely to affect audience judgments of the speaker” (Miller and Hewgill, 1964). References • Boyd, Stephen. (2012). Public Speaking Tips. • Fromkin, Victoria A. (ed.). (1978). Tone: A linguistic survey. New York: Academic Press. • How to Stop Saying the Word “Like.” (n.d) • Miller, G. R., & Hewgill, M. A. (1964). The effect of variations in nonfluency on audience ratings of source credibility. Quarterly journal of speech, 50(1), 36. • Page, R. L. (1978). The effect of voice volume on the perception of personality. Journal of social psychology, 105(1), 65. • Pashek, G.V. & Brookshire, R.H. (1982). Effects of rate of speech and linguistic stress on auditory paragraph comprehension of aphasic individuals. Journal of Speech of Hearing Research, Vol. 25 377-383. • Pennycook, A. (1985). Actions speak louder than words: Paralanguage, communication, and education. Teachers of english to speakers of other languages, inc., 19(2), 259-282. • Pike, Kenneth L. (1948). Tone languages: A technique for determining the number and type of pitch contrasts in a language, with studies in tonemic substitution and fusion. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. • Quality. Merriam Webster, An Encyclopedia Britannica Company. • Quality. (26 January 2012). Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. • Robinson, S.L., Sterling, H.E., Skinner, C.H., Robinson, D.H., & Mississippi State University. (1997). Effects of lecture rate on students’ comprehension and ratings of topic importance. • Woodland, J. & Voyer, . (2011). Context and intonation in the perception of sarcasm. Psychology Press, 26(3). 227-239.