Topic #3: Job Analysis

Paul L. Schumann, Ph.D.
Professor of Management
MGMT 440: Human Resource Management
© 2008 by Paul L. Schumann. All rights reserved.
1
Outline
 Goal: Match Person & Job
 Definitions
 Format of a Job Description
 Format of a Task Statement
 Job Analysis Process
 New Views of Job Analysis
2
Goal: Match Person & Job
Person
Job
KSAs
Talents & Interests
Motivation
Tasks & Duties
Rewards
Job Outcomes
Performance
Satisfaction
 Need information about the Person & about the Job
3
Definitions
 Job Analysis: the process of collecting & analyzing
information about jobs to write:
 Job Description: a document that identifies the tasks &
duties performed by a job
 Job Specification: a document that identifies the
qualifications required by a job
 Most organizations combine the Job Description & the
Job Specification into a single document for each job
 Usually simply called a “Job Description”
4
Definitions (more)
 Task: a unit of work activity performed by a worker
within a limited time period
 Duty: several related tasks that are performed by a
worker
 Position: the set of all tasks & duties performed by a
worker
 Job: a group of identical positions
5
Format of a Job Description
 Example:
http://krypton.mnsu.edu/~schuma
nn/www/teach/sample_job_descrip
.pdf
 Common Elements
 Job Title
 Job Summary
 Tasks & Duties

“Task Statements”
 Qualifications
 Other information
Restaurant Manager
Job Summary:
Plan, organize, direct, and coordinate the workers and resources of the restaurant for the
efficient, well-prepared, and profitable service of food and beverages.
Tasks and Duties:
1. Work with chefs and other personnel to plan menus that are flavorful and popular
with customers. Work with chefs for efficient provisioning and purchasing of
supplies. Estimate food and beverage costs. Supervise portion control and
quantities of preparation to minimize waste. Perform frequent checks to ensure
consistent high quality of preparation and service.
2. Supervise operation of bar to maximize profitability, minimize legal liability, and
conform to alcoholic beverage regulations.
3. Work with other management personnel to plan marketing, advertising, and any
special restaurant functions.
4. Direct hiring, training, and scheduling of food service personnel.
5. Investigate and resolve complaints concerning food quality and service.
6. Enforce sanitary practices for food handling, general cleanliness, and maintenance
of kitchen and dining areas.
7. Comply with all health and safety regulations.
8. Review and monitor, with bookkeeper or other financial personnel, expenditures
to ensure that they conform to budget limitations. Work to improve performance.
9. Perform other duties as assigned by management.
Qualifications:
1. Bachelor of Science degree in hotel/restaurant management is desirable. A
combination of practical experience and education will be considered as an
alternate.
2. Good organizational skills for dealing with diverse duties and staff.
3. Pleasant, polite manner for dealing with public as well as staff.
Reports to:
Supervises:
Date:
Department:
Division:
Approved:
Source (revised from): http://www2.hrnext.com/Article.cfm/Nav/2.4.0.0.6719.0
6
Format of a Task Statement
 First word or phrase (required): Performs what action?
(Present-tense verb)
 Example: “Supervise …”
 Next word or phrase (required): To whom or what is
the action performed? (Object of the verb)
 Example: “… operation of bar …”
 Next word or phrase (optional): Additional
information
 Example: “… to maximize profitability, minimize legal
liability, and conform to alcoholic beverage regulations.”
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Format of a Task Statement
 Example:
http://krypton.mnsu.edu/~schumann
/www/teach/sample_job_descrip.pdf
 Each Task Statement is in
the proper format
 Optional: Put the Task
Statements in order of:
 Task performance
 Task importance
 Amount of time spent on
each task
 No order, but group
related tasks
Restaurant Manager
Job Summary:
Plan, organize, direct, and coordinate the workers and resources of the restaurant for the
efficient, well-prepared, and profitable service of food and beverages.
Tasks and Duties:
1. Work with chefs and other personnel to plan menus that are flavorful and popular
with customers. Work with chefs for efficient provisioning and purchasing of
supplies. Estimate food and beverage costs. Supervise portion control and
quantities of preparation to minimize waste. Perform frequent checks to ensure
consistent high quality of preparation and service.
2. Supervise operation of bar to maximize profitability, minimize legal liability, and
conform to alcoholic beverage regulations.
3. Work with other management personnel to plan marketing, advertising, and any
special restaurant functions.
4. Direct hiring, training, and scheduling of food service personnel.
5. Investigate and resolve complaints concerning food quality and service.
6. Enforce sanitary practices for food handling, general cleanliness, and maintenance
of kitchen and dining areas.
7. Comply with all health and safety regulations.
8. Review and monitor, with bookkeeper or other financial personnel, expenditures
to ensure that they conform to budget limitations. Work to improve performance.
9. Perform other duties as assigned by management.
Qualifications:
1. Bachelor of Science degree in hotel/restaurant management is desirable. A
combination of practical experience and education will be considered as an
alternate.
2. Good organizational skills for dealing with diverse duties and staff.
3. Pleasant, polite manner for dealing with public as well as staff.
Reports to:
Supervises:
Date:
Department:
Division:
Approved:
Source (revised from): http://www2.hrnext.com/Article.cfm/Nav/2.4.0.0.6719.0
8
Job Analysis Process
 Source: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 4.1, p. 141
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Phase 1: Scope of the Project
 Decide purposes of the job analysis project
 How do you want to use the Job Descriptions?






Job design
Recruiting
Selection
Performance appraisal
Training
Compensation
 Decide which jobs to include in the job analysis project
10
Phase 2: Methods of Job Analysis
 Decide what data (information) is needed
 At a minimum, for each job being analyzed, we need
data on:


Tasks & duties performed on the job
Qualifications required by the job
 Identify sources of job data
 Job incumbents: observation, interview, questionnaire
 Supervisor of job: interview, questionnaire
 Other sources
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Phase 2: Methods (more)
 Select specific procedures of job analysis
 Narrative Job Descriptions



Simplest method of job analysis
Collect qualitative data (no numbers)
Examples:



Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 4.2, pp. 148–149
http://krypton.mnsu.edu/~schumann/www/teach/sample_job_descrip.pdf
http://www.jobdescription.com
 Engineering approaches: micro-motion studies (time &
motion studies)

Measure body motions involved in performing the job
12
Phase 2: Methods (more)
 Select specific procedures of job analysis (more)
 Structured Job Analysis Procedures

Functional Job Analysis (FJA): adds to the Job Description 7
scales (numbers) that measure:
 3 worker-function scales: % of time spent with:
 Data
 People
 Things
 1 worker-instruction scale
 3 scales that measure the general educational requirements:
reasoning, mathematics, & language
13
Phase 2: Methods (more)
 Structured Job Analysis Procedures (more)


Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)
 Standardized questionnaire
 Questions focus on worker activities on the job
 For non-managerial & non-professional jobs
 http://www.paq.com/?FuseAction=Main.PAQProgram
Professional and Managerial Position Questionnaire (PMPQ)
 Standardized questionnaire
 For professional & managerial jobs
 http://www.paq2.com/pmpqmain.html
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Phase 2: Methods (more)
 Structured Job Analysis Procedures (more)

O*NET: Occupational Information Network database
 Developed by the US Department of Labor
 Standardized descriptors of skills, knowledges, tasks,
occupation requirements, and worker abilities, interests,
and values to assist you in building accurate job descriptions
 O*NET Resource Center: http://www.onetcenter.org/
 O*NET Online: http://www.onetcenter.org/
 Team Project Suggestion: Use “O*NET Online” as a
resource in your Team Project to help write the job
description

Be sure you document in your report the resources you use
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Phase 2: Methods (more)
 Structured Job Analysis Procedures (more)



Task Inventory Procedure
 Questionnaire with a master list of possible tasks
 Check-mark the tasks done by the job
Other structured Job Analysis procedures:
 Critical Incidents Technique
 Ability Requirements Scales
 Personality-Related Job Analysis Procedures
 Cognitive Task Analysis
List of Job Analysis questionnaires with brief descriptions:
http://www.hr-guide.com/data/G012.htm
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Phase 3: Data Collection & Analysis
 Collect job data
 Get the organization ready
 Reduce sources of bias
 Conduct effective interviews
 Analyze the job data
 Report results to organization
 Write the job descriptions
 Periodically recheck the job data
 Update & revise the job descriptions as needed
17
Phase 4: Assessment
 Evaluate the Job Analysis project
 Continuous improvement: learn from both successes &
mistakes to continuously get better



Did the project finish on-time and under-budget?
 If not, what went wrong? What would you do differently?
Did you collect the correct information?
 What additional information would you collect if you did the
project over?
 What information would you not collect?
Are the Job Descriptions being used as intended?
 If not, what’s missing to make them useful?
18
Job Analysis Process
 Source: Fisher, Schoenfeldt, & Shaw (2006), Figure 4.1, p. 141
19
New Views of Job Analysis
 Future-Oriented Strategic Job Analysis
 Identify the tasks, knowledge, skills, & abilities that will
be needed to perform a job in the future


Instead of describing how a job is today, describe how it will
be in the future
Typically uses experts to help make predictions of the future
 Competency Modeling
 Identify the observable performance dimensions that
differentiate effective from ineffective employees

Define the job’s critical success factors, which should be tied
to the organization’s objectives and strategy
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Example of a Job Description
 Example of a Narrative
Job Description:
http://krypton.mnsu.edu/~schuma
nn/www/teach/sample_job_descrip
.pdf
 How could it be used for:
 Job design?
 Recruiting?
 Selection?
 Performance appraisal?
 Training?
 Compensation?
Restaurant Manager
Job Summary:
Plan, organize, direct, and coordinate the workers and resources of the restaurant for the
efficient, well-prepared, and profitable service of food and beverages.
Tasks and Duties:
1. Work with chefs and other personnel to plan menus that are flavorful and popular
with customers. Work with chefs for efficient provisioning and purchasing of
supplies. Estimate food and beverage costs. Supervise portion control and
quantities of preparation to minimize waste. Perform frequent checks to ensure
consistent high quality of preparation and service.
2. Supervise operation of bar to maximize profitability, minimize legal liability, and
conform to alcoholic beverage regulations.
3. Work with other management personnel to plan marketing, advertising, and any
special restaurant functions.
4. Direct hiring, training, and scheduling of food service personnel.
5. Investigate and resolve complaints concerning food quality and service.
6. Enforce sanitary practices for food handling, general cleanliness, and maintenance
of kitchen and dining areas.
7. Comply with all health and safety regulations.
8. Review and monitor, with bookkeeper or other financial personnel, expenditures
to ensure that they conform to budget limitations. Work to improve performance.
9. Perform other duties as assigned by management.
Qualifications:
1. Bachelor of Science degree in hotel/restaurant management is desirable. A
combination of practical experience and education will be considered as an
alternate.
2. Good organizational skills for dealing with diverse duties and staff.
3. Pleasant, polite manner for dealing with public as well as staff.
Reports to:
Supervises:
Date:
Department:
Division:
Approved:
Source (revised from): http://www2.hrnext.com/Article.cfm/Nav/2.4.0.0.6719.0
21
Outline
 Goal: Match Person & Job
 Definitions
 Format of a Job Description
 Format of a Task Statement
 Job Analysis Process
 New Views of Job Analysis
22