Revolution and Enlightenment Mr. Lanphier BELLS!! What freedoms did Voltaire want for the people? Freedom of Speech and Religion What types of punishments was Beccaria against? Torture and excessive punishment Where can we see examples of Voltaire’s ideas in America? Bill of Rights, 1st amendment Who is considered the First Feminist? Mary Wollstonecraft Setting the Stage: The Scientific Revolution The Renaissance & The Reformation The Renaissance brought fourth the questioning of everything. Scholars began to question ideas that had been accepted for hundreds of years The Reformation prompted religious followers to challenge accepted ways of thinking about God and salvation. What Was the Scientific Revolution? A revolution in human understanding and knowledge about the physical universe 17th century phenomenon bookended by the Astronomical discoveries of Kepler, Copernicus, and Galileo and the publication of Newton’s works The Roots of Modern Science The Medieval View Most knowledge in the Middle Ages comes from the Bible and Greek/Roman sources. Supports geocentric theory—moon, sun, planets revolve around earth The Scientific Revolution A Revolution is a complete change, or an overthrow of a government, a social system, etc. The Scientific Revolution changed the way Europeans looked at the world. People began to make conclusions based on experimentation and observation, instead of merely accepting traditional ideas. “Science” Before the Scientific Revolution “Science” as we know it today is a habit of mind. It involves using reason, observation, testing, and systematic thought to uncover truths about the world and about people, animals, and things in the world. Unlike today, scientists in ancient and medieval times were really philosophers who drew conclusions based on deductive reasoning; they rarely conducted practical experiments “Science” Before the Scientific Revolution Medieval “science” had very little basis in fact and drew more from superstition and religious belief. Alchemy (Like Chemistry) aimed to develop potions that would do things such as change iron into gold, cure all disease, or bestow immortality. Astrology was based on the concept that the positions and conditions of celestial bodies could influence human existence, both positively and negatively. Practitioners of astrology would often claim that human suffering (including sickness) could be explained by the position of the stars. Before the Scientific Revolution… •European scholars accepted and believed the teachings of Ptolemy, an ancient Greek astronomer. Who taught the earth was the center of the universe (Geocentric Theory) and was supported by the Church. • It was not until some startling discoveries caused Europeans to change the way Ptolemy (87-140 A.D.) they viewed the physical world. Nicolaus Copernicus • Copernicus was a Polish astronomer who studied in Italy. • In 1543 Copernicus published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. • In his book, Copernicus made two conclusions: 1. The universe is heliocentric, or suncentered. 2. The Earth is merely one of several planets revolving around the sun. The Copernican Heliocentric Model A Revolutionary Model of the Universe The Heliocentric Theory Challenged the Widely accepted geocentric theory as inaccurate Copernicus develops the heliocentric theory— planets revolve around the sun Later scientists mathematically prove Copernicus to be correct Nicolaus Copernicus Nicolaus Copernicus • Copernicus came to these conclusions using mathematical formulas. • The Copernican conception of the universe marked the start of modern science and astronomy. Reaction to Copernicus •Many scientists of the time also felt that if Ptolemy’s reasoning about the planets was wrong, then the whole system of human knowledge could be wrong!! At the time his theories did little more than spark debate among scientific thinkers and had little initial impact outside of academic circles. His ideas would provide the foundation for the revolutionary work of later scientists. Models of the Universe: Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Geocentric: the Earth is at the center of the universe; all heavenly bodies move around the Earth Heliocentric: the Sun is at the center of the universe; all heavenly bodies move around the Sun—including the Earth (Link) Tycho Brahe •1500s, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe provided evidence that supported Copernicus’ heliocentric theory. •Brahe set up the most sophisticated astronomical observatory of his time •Every night for years he carefully observed the sky, accumulated data about the movement of the stars, planets, and comets. •Created some of the most accurate star charts of the time. Tycho Brahe Owned both a paper mill and a printing press and selfpublished The Dream, considered one of the first works of science fiction. Theorized a system distinct from both the Ptolemaic and Copernican ones Argued that the Moon and Sun revolve around the Earth while other planets revolve around the Sun C. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) • After Brahe’s death, his assistant and student, the German astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler, used Brahe’s data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun. Planetary motion conforms to mathematical formula and Heliocentric Theory Johannes Kepler His calculations also showed that the planets moved in oval shaped orbits or Elliptical orbits. and not perfect circles, as Ptolemy and Copernicus believed. Planets do not move at uniform speeds in their orbits Galileo Galilei • Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer who built upon the scientific foundations laid by Copernicus and Kepler. • Galileo assembled the first telescope which allowed him to see mountains on the moon and fiery spots on the sun. • Galileo also discovered that objects fall at the same speed regardless of weight. Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) Italian mathematician, astronomer “Father of Science” Observed from his scope: • Stars were farther away than • • • planets There were mountains on the Moon Jupiter has four moons Saturn has rings Galileo’s telescopic drawing of the moon Galileo Galilei • Galileo’s discoveries caused an uproar. Other scholars came against him because like Copernicus, Galileo was contradicting Ptolemy. • The Church came against Galileo because it claimed that the Earth was fixed and unmoving. It was easier to label his work as foolish and heretical than to work to see how it fit in the Catholic framework • When threatened with death before the Inquisition in 1633, Galileo recanted his beliefs and declares his and other new findings are wrong even though he knew the Earth moved. • Galileo was put under house arrest, and was not allowed to publish his ideas. Galileo vs. the Catholic Church 19th-century depiction of Galileo before the Inquisition tribunal The Scientific Method A Logical Approach Revolution in thinking leads to development of scientific method—a series of steps for forming and testing scientific theories Bacon and Descartes Thinkers Bacon and Descartes help to create scientific method Bacon urges scientists to experiment before drawing conclusions Descartes advocates using logic and math to reason out basic truths The Scientific Method • By the early 1600s, a new approach to science had emerged, known as the Scientific Method. Scientific Method – painstaking method used to confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis. • Scientists observed nature, made hypotheses, or educated guesses, and then tested these hypotheses through experiments. • Unlike earlier approaches, the scientific method did not rely on the classical thinkers or the Church, but depended upon a step-by-step process of observation and experimentation. The Scientific Method Science as a multiple-step process: 1. Observe an 2. Develop a object or theory that phenomenon explains the object or phenomenon 3. Test the theory with experiments The (modern) Scientific Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. State the problem Collect information Form a hypothesis Test the hypothesis Record & analyze data State a conclusion Repeat steps 1 – 6 • Scientists soon discovered that the movements of bodies in nature closely followed what could be predicted by mathematics. • The scientific method set Europe on the road to rapid technological progress. The Scientific Method Newton • Sir Isaac Newton was an English scholar who built upon the work of Copernicus and Galileo. • Newton was the most influential scientist of the Scientific Revolution. • He used math to prove the existence of gravity - a force that kept planets in their orbits around the sun, and also caused objects to fall towards the earth. The Scientific Method Newton • Newton published his scientific ideas in his book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. •Argues for a universe governed by natural laws • He discovered laws of light and color, and formulated his 3 laws of motion: 1. A body at rest stays at rest 2. Acceleration is caused by force 3. For every action there is an equal opposite reaction • He invented calculus: a method of mathematical analysis. Newton Explains the Law of Gravity Newton’s Theories Theory of motion—states some forces rule motion of planets, matter in space, and earth LAW OF GRAVITY Motion in space and earth linked by the law of universal gravitation—holds that every object is universe attracts every other object Newton views the universe as a vast, perfect mechanical clock Isaac Newton in 1702 The Scientific Method According to a popular story, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree, and wondered if the force that pulled the apple to the Earth also controlled the movement of the planets. Newton argued that nature followed laws. The Scientific Method Francis Bacon (1561-1626) René Descartes (1595-1650) The Scientific Method • Francis Bacon was an English philosopher who wrote Advancement of Learning. • Bacon popularized the scientific method and used it with philosophy and knowledge. • Bacon argued that truth could not be known at the beginning of a question, but only at the end after a long process of investigation. Francis Bacon Francis Bacon and the Scientific Method Inductive reasoning and method: involves using concrete facts to extrapolate broader conclusions. (Inductive reasoning is the opposite of deductive reasoning.) Father of the Scientific Revolution Emphasis on practical, useful knowledge He believed that all scientific research should rely on careful observation and experimentation rather than simply relying on one’s own thought and reasoning, as earlier scientific thinkers had The Scientific Method • Descartes René Descartes was a French scientist, mathematician, and philosopher. • Descartes emphasized human reasoning as the best road to understanding. • Like Bacon, Descartes also believed that truth was only found after a long process of studying and investigation. Rationalism Reason, not tradition, is the source of all knowledge Prior knowledge was René Descartes subject to doubt because it was based on traditional beliefs rather than on reason. G. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Significance of Doubt: Going so far as to doubt whether he was awake or dreaming—or if he even existed. he knew that his thoughts existed, which then suggested the existence of a thinking being—himself: Cogito ergo sum (“I think, therefore, I am”) The Deductive Reasoning Method: involves using a general principle to draw conclusions about a specific instance The Scientific Revolution Spreads microscope thermometer simple mercury barometer Scientific Instruments Scientists develop microscope, barometer, and thermometer New instruments lead to better observations and new discoveries Other Scientific Advances… Chemistry • In the 1600s Robert Boyle distinguished between individual elements and chemical compounds. • Boyle also explained the effect of temperature and pressure on gases •He argued that matter is made of many different particles •Boyle’s law reveals interaction of volume, temperature, and gas pressure. Robert Boyle Robert Boyle’s first air pump Other Scientific Advances… Medicine and the Human Body • In 1543 Andreas Vesalius published On the Structure of the Human Body. • Vesalius’ book was the first accurate and detailed book on human anatomy and Greatly Improved Knowledge of the Body. Andreas Vesalius Medieval human anatomy drawing before Vesalius Drawings done by Vesalius Other Scientific Advances… Medicine William Harvey • An English scholar who described the circulation of blood for the first time. •He showed how the heart served as a pump to force blood through veins and arteries. • Venal valves had already been discovered, but here Harvey shows that venal blood flows only toward the heart. He ligatured an arm to make obvious the veins and their valves, then pressed blood away from the heart and showed that the vein would remain empty because it was blocked by the valve. Other Scientific Advances… Medicine • French physician Ambroise Paré developed a new and more effective ointment for preventing infection. • Paré also developed a technique for closing wounds and stitches. Ambroise Paré Cauterizing Instruments of Ambroise Paré Other Scientific Advances… Medicine A Dutch inventor who perfected the microscope and became the first human to see cells and microorganisms. • Anton von Leeuwenhoek Medicine and the Human Body (continued) Edward Jenner produces world’s first vaccination —for smallpox 1802 caricature of Jenner vaccinating patients who feared it would make them sprout cow like appendages. The Enlightenment Not only did new ways of thinking apply to science, but were also applied to all aspects of society: government, religion, economics, and education. This spurred on the Enlightenment: a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power for individuals to solve problems. The Age of Reason The Enlightenment The Enlightenment grew largely out of the new methods and discoveries achieved in the Scientific Revolution. The Enlightenment movement began in the 18th century in France and advocated Reason (To Think Logically) as the basis of authority in all decisions and using reason and logic to solve social and Political problems. Enlightenment Principles Religion, tradition, and superstition limited independent thought Accept knowledge based on observation, logic, and reason, not on faith Questioning Spirit of the Renaissance, choosing to focus on human nature rather than on spiritual and religious matters. A meeting of French Enlightenment thinkers Scientific and academic thought should be secular The French Salon and the Philosophes • Madame de Pompadour was a devotee of art and philosophy • Began holding Salons: gatherings for aristocrats to discuss new theories and ideas • Philosophes: French Enlightenment thinkers who attended the salons Madame de Pompadour Thomas Hobbes The Enlightenment Thomas Hobbes Believed All humans are naturally selfish and wicked and we need a strong and stern ruler to govern (Absolutism) Hobbes called for a social contract, a government where people agreed to give total control to a monarch because people acted in their own self interest. Thomas Hobbes Hobbes believed people are naturally selfish, cruel, and greedy. In 1651, he published a book called Leviathan. In this book, he wrote that people are driven by a restless desire for power. Without laws, people would always be in conflict. Argued that the only way to avoid war, chaos, disarray was a strong central ruler In such a “state of nature”, life would be “nasty, brutish, and short.” His idea: Governments were created to protect people from their own Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) Applied rational analysis to the study of government Attacked the concept of divine right of Kings (God chose them), yet supported a strong monarchy Argued that the people and the leader had a Social Contract: an agreement between people and their government, in which people give up some things in return for the benefit of having government. Hobbes’ Social Contract: people give up their rights to an absolute ruler in exchange for protection, law, and order. People do not have the right to rebel Hobbes continued…. Later Enlightenment thinkers might not have agreed with Hobbes… But, he was important because he was one of the first thinkers to apply reason to the problem of politics His ideas may sound harsh, but it was based on his own observations of human nature and reasoning. John Locke John Locke More positive view of society than Hobbes; people could learn from experiences and improve themselves All people are born free and equal with three natural rights: life, liberty, and property. Natural rights: rights that people have simply for being human. The purpose of government is to protect these rights, if they fail to do so, the citizens have the right to over throw it. John Locke (1632–1704) Locke believed that before people formed societies, they lived in a “state of nature.” That all men were equal because they were “creatures of the same species and rank” with the “same advantages” and “same faculties. Believed people are born with minds as a blank slate “Tabula Rasa” to be filled up by environment and experience: not naturally good or bad Believed it was human nature to want to figure things out and to want to make sense of the world around you Believed humans were reasonable creatures capable of figuring out anything John Locke: Social Contract and Natural Rights He wrote Two Treatises of Government in 1690. He believed the purpose of government was to protect people’s natural rights. He said government should protect,” his life, liberty, and property—against the injuries and attempts of other men.” The true basis of government was a social contract between people and their government. If the government didn’t respect people’s rights, it could be overthrown. John Locke: Social Contract and Natural Rights In exchange for protection, people gave government the power to rule on their behalf. We call this idea the “consent of the governed.” The idea that government could be overthrown if it failed to respect people’s rights had wide influence and was ultimately echoed in the American Declaration of Independence. Locke was in favor of constitutional monarchies. This meant laws or a constitution limited the power of the monarchs (or kings). In 1689, the English set down a new set of rules called the English Bill of Rights. This strengthened the power of the people and their representatives in Parliament (an English congress.) Baron de Montesquieu (1689–1755) • French noble and political philosopher • Wrote The Spirit of the Laws studying types of governments, then put forward his own theory of government. Montesquieu Believed in 3 types of governments: ● Monarchies: ruled by a king/queen guided by honor ● Republics: ruled by elected officials guided by virtue ● Despotisms: ruled by absolute dictators guided by fear Montesquieu (continued) Montesquieu did not believe that democracy was the best form of government. Instead, he favored a constitutional monarchy based on the British model. He greatly admired Britain’s government because he felt that Parliament, the king, and the courts worked separately and efficiently since each could limit the power of the other. Montesquieu identified three sorts of governmental power: legislative, executive “in respect to things dependent on the law of nations,” and executive “in regard to those things that depend on civil law” (i.e., the judiciary). Baron Montesquieu Separation of Powers Believed power in government had to be divided amongst different branches Believed checks and balances are necessary to keep one branch from becoming too powerful Heavily influenced America’s founding fathers 1770’s-1780’s 3 Branches of Gov’t included in US Constitution Believed the people needed safeguards from government becoming too powerful Montesquieu continued…. Each branch of government checked the other branches. When powers were not separated this way, Montesquieu warned, liberty was soon lost. He said: “When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person…, there can be no liberty.” Like Locke and the other Philosophes, Montesquieu greatly influenced the men who wrote the U.S. Constitution. We now have a separate legislative (Congress), judicial (courts), and executive (President) branch. Voltaire Voltaire was French and the most brilliant and influential of the philosophes He used satire against the clergy, aristocracy, and government Even though Voltaire made enemies, he never stopped fighting for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion and freedom of speech. Voltaire (1694–1778) Wrote plays, essays, poetry, philosophy, and books Championed social, political, and religious tolerance (Open to different beliefs and customs) Staunch supporter of individual liberties “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” Voltaire Supporter of right to a fair trial Disapproved of Censorship Known for his wit and nonconformity Believed all governments were susceptible to tyranny Voltaire met Benjamin Franklin, and when the U.S. Bill of Rights was written, the ideas of freedom of religion and freedom of speech were added to our 1st amendment to the Constitution. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778) Philosophized on the nature of society and government Wrote: The Social Contract viewed societies as having been created through mutual consent of all members The social compact balanced benefits with obligations. Those who entered into it would receive mutual protection and defense, E. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) In return, the social compact obligated members of society to subordinate their “natural liberty” (i.e., the freedom enjoyed by individuals in the state of nature) to “the supreme direction of the general will.” Rather than liberation, rationalism and civilization destroys the individual Man by nature was alienating, solitary, good and free Cesare Beccaria: The Rights of the Accused In the Middle Ages, torture of criminals was common. The rack was often used, as well as devices like thumbscrews. Beccaria, an Italian, wrote a book called On Crimes and Punishments in which he argued against brutal punishments. Beccaria continued…. His ideas: A person accused of a crime should receive a fair and speedy trial. Torture should never be used. Capital Punishment (death sentences) should be done away with. “For a punishment to be just it, should consist of only such gradations of intensity as to suffice to deter men from committing crimes.” This means that “punishment should fit the crime” and not be more than necessary to stop someone else from doing it again. Beccaria’s impact Beccaria’s ideas were adopted straight into our Constitution’s Bill of Rights. In fact our 8th amendment prevents “cruel and unusual punishment” for crimes, and our 6th amendment provides for a speedy trial. (The only exception is the Death Penalty, which we still have in the United States today.) Mary Wollstonecraft Mary Wollstonecraft argued that women’s education should not be secondary to men’s and that women need to education to become more virtuous and useful. Wrote: A Vindication of the Rights of Women in response to Declaration of the Rights of Man First Feminist Deism Deists believed in God but rejected organized religion Morality could be achieved by following reason rather than the teachings of the church Deists viewed God as the “great watchmaker” whose creation—the universe—operated as smoothly as a fine Swiss watch. Deism thus centered around a belief in a God who operated according to reason and whose existence could be seen in the natural order and logic of all that He had created The Enlightenment The Enlightenment writers challenged long held beliefs and ideas about society. They challenged the church, state, monarchs, and unequal social classes. These ideas would spread and ultimately help start two of the most influential events of World History: The American and French Revolutions.