MS Powerpoint format

What Does Accessibility Mean
To The Blogging Community?
Brian Kelly
University of Bath
UKOLN is supported by:
Emma Duke-Williams
School of Computing
University of Portsmouth
This work is licensed under a
2.0 licence (but note caveat)
• Introductions:
• The Facilitators
• The Participants
What We Aim To Do
Technological Challenges
Pedagogical Challenges
Addressing The Challenges
Note this aims to be a Web 2.0 session – userfocused and always beta 
About The Facilitators (1)
Brian Kelly:
• UK Web Focus – a JISC/MLA-funded post to advise
UK HE/FE and cultural heritage sectors on Web
issues (standards, emerging technologies, ..)
• Based at UKOLN, a national centre of expertise in
digital information management
• Current areas of interest:
Potential of Web 2.0 in learning & teaching, research, ...
Maximising interoperability through use of open standards
Addressing barriers to the deployment of new technologies
Maximising access to resources, services and learning
Note that as a national adviser, the advice needs to
be pragmatic and achievable across the sectors.
About The Facilitators (2)
Emma Duke-Williams
• Lecturer in the School of Computing at
Portsmouth University
• Came into Higher Education after having taught in
Special Education the UK, and teacher training/
teaching in Papua New Guinea - through
Voluntary Services Overseas
• Currently teach undergradudate & postgraduate
units on educational uses of computers (including
community development), Multimedia & Web
• Current research includes the role of Computers
in supporting learning, teaching & assessment with emphasis on access for all
About You
Please tell us:
• Who you are
• What you do
• The aspects of Blogs and accessibility of
interest to you
Note that we will try to keep a record of your interests in a Wiki in
order to (a) remind ourselves of your interests (b) review this
towards the end and (c) help in subsequent reports.
Please let us know if the notes breach confidentiality, are
inaccurate, etc. (or update Wiki yourself!)
Learning Objectives
By the end of this session participants will:
• Have a better understanding of what accessibility
means in the context of Blogging.
• Have a better understanding of the strengths and
weaknesses of the WAI approach to accessibility.
• Be aware of a holistic/contextual approach to elearning accessibility.
• Have explored the reasons for use of Blogs from a
pedagogical approach and how this relates to
• Be aware of possible barriers to the use of a holistic
approach & ways of addressing such barriers.
This workshop session will feed into the conference aims of
producing a white paper on educational blogging
Scope of the Session
In order to provide a framework for managing this
session we propose that we focus discussions on:
• Blogs and related Web 2.0 technologies (e.g. include Wikis
and Podcasting)
• Access to the technologies by students with disabilities for
reading/listening and for publishing
• Pedagogical aspects
Additional relevant areas include:
• Use of / availability of specialist devices
• Social inclusion
Important, but out-of-scope areas include:
• Access control management
• Mainstream Blog issues (addressed in other sessions)
Are you happy with this scope?
Issues Which Need to be Addressed
• What is meant by 'universal accessibility'?
• Is the approach taken to making an online
bus timetable accessible likely to be the
same as making e-learning accessible?
• Does the law (SENDA) or e-government
guidelines require us to comply with WAI
• If we have flexibility, how do we address
the issue of accessibility for e-learning (in
general) and Blogs in particular?
Technological Challenges
The WAI Perspective
How many of you are familiar with:
• WAI (Web Accessibility Initiative)
• WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines)
How many of you:
• Have policies based on WAI/WCAG?
• Make use of WCAG guidelines in your Web
development work, e-learning, …?
How many of you are familiar with:
• UAAG (User Agent Accessibility Guidelines)
• ATAG (Authoring Tools Accessibility Guidelines)
Note that your institution may have policies which mandate
conformance with WAI guidelines, and potentially could ban use
of applications on these grounds (e.g. Podcasting)
Technological Challenges
The WAI Model
WAI has been tremendously successful in raising
awareness of Web accessibility and providing
guidelines to achieve this.
WAI guidelines are
based on:
• WCAG (Web Content …)
• ATAG (Authoring Tools ..)
• UAAG (User Agents …)
The model is simple to grasp. But is this model
appropriate for the future? Does the model:
Reflect the diversity of users & user environments
Reflect the diversity of Web usage
Reflect real-world technical environment and developments
Reflect real-world political and cultural environments
Technological Challenges
Limitations Of The Model
This model:
• Requires all three components to be implemented
in order for the WAI vision to be achieved
• Is of limited use to end users who have no control
over browser or authoring tools developments
• Is confusing – as many think WCAG is WAI
How does this model address:
• Delays in full conformance? (We're still waiting for
"until user agents …" clause to be resolved)
• Real-world reluctance to deploy new software
(issues of inertia, testing, costs, …)
• Real world complexities
Is there a plan B in case this model fails to ever take off?
Is it desirable to base legal requirements on an unproven
theoretical framework?
Technological Challenges
Usability Issues
What is the relationship between usability &
Technological Challenges
Holistic Approach
Kelly, Phipps & Swift1 developed
a holistic framework for
e-learning accessibility
This framework:
• Focusses on the needs
of the learner
• Requires accessible
learning outcomes,
not necessarily e-learning
This approach reflects current UK emphasis on
blended learning (rather than e-learning)
1 Developing A Holistic Approach For E-Learning Accessibility,
Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 2004, Vol. 30, Issue 3
Technological Challenges
Widening The Scope
Paper on "Contextual Web Accessibility - Maximizing
the Benefit of Accessibility Guideline" by Sloan, Kelly et
al presented at W4A workshop, Edinburgh, May 2006:
• Argued the need to know and design for your
target audience
• Extended the user-focussed approach to
 From a top-down approach (e.g. use in national
development programmes) based on a 3layered contextual model
 From a bottom-up approach for developers
based on the tangram metaphor
Top-Down Approach
External factors: Institutional issues (funds, expertise,
policies, security…)
Digital Library Programme
Purpose Sector Funding Resources Research
Standards Accessibility/Usability Privacy Finance …
External Self-assessment Penalties Learning Broken
A framework has
been developed
which places
accessibility &
usability within a
wider context:
• The context
• A range of
• A compliance
guidelines should
This approach embraces relativism and context be usable in wider
rather than the current absolutist approach
External factors: Legal issues; cultural factors; …
Technological Challenges
Bottom-Up Approach
The "Tangram Metaphor" developed to avoid checklist /
automated approach:
• W3C model has limitations
• Jigsaw model implies
single solution
• Tangram model seeks to
avoid such problems
This approach:
• Encourages developers
to think about a diversity
of solutions
• Focus on 'pleasure' it
provides to user
Technological Challenges
Tangram Model
Model allows us to:
• Focuses on end solution rather
than individual components
• Provided solutions tailored for Guidelines/standards
end user
• Doesn't limit scope (can you
do better than WAI AAA?)
• Usability
• Make use of automated
• Pedagogy
checking – but ensures
• Learning styles
emphasis is on user
• Dyslexic
Learning difficulties
(resources, …)
• Interoperability
• Accessibility metadata
• …
Technological Challenges
The Legal Framework
This approach is well-suited for the UK legal
SENDA/DDA legislation requires organisations to take
"reasonable measures to ensure people with
disabilities are not discriminated against unfairly"
Note that the legislation is:
• Technologically neutral
• Backwards and forwards compatible
• Avoids version control complexities
• …
The legislation also covers usability, as well as
Questions / Exercises
Any questions / comments?
We will now have group exercises which
explore some of the challenges of Blogging
and accessibility
Note resources cited in the talk are bookmarked in using tag ''blogs-ac-uk-2006-kelly"
Further Information
Contextual Web Accessibility - Maximizing the Benefit of Accessibility
W4A 2006 Proceedings, May 2006, (CD ROM) Sloan, D. Kelly, B., Heath,
A., Petrie, H., Hamilton, F and Phipps, L.
A Contextual Framework For Standards
WWW 2006 E-Government Proceedings, May 2006, (CD ROM) Kelly, B.,
Dunning, A., Rahtz, S., Hollins, P and Phipps, L.
Forcing Standardization or Accommodating Diversity? A Framework
for Applying the WCAG in the Real World
Proceedings of the 2005 International Cross-Disciplinary Workshop on
Web Accessibility (W4A). ISBN: 1-59593-036-1. Kelly, B., Sloan, D.,
Phipps, L., Petrie, H. and Hamilton, F.
Holistic Approaches to E-Learning Accessibility
ALT-J Research in Learning Technology, Vol. 14, No. 1, March 2006, pp.
69-78. Phipps, L. and Kelly, B.
Developing A Holistic Approach For E-Learning Accessibility
Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 2004, Vol. 30, Issue 3,
Kelly, B., Phipps, L. and Swift, E.