Introduction to Geography 100 Exam 1 – Physical Geography Test for… 1. Read Maps: topographic, traffic, regions 2. Use map points, lines, and area symbols, as well as color, to show how those features are located, arranged, distributed, and related to one another. 3. Given a map of Paris, write down directions from the Eifel Tower to the Louvre, using cardinal directions, distances in miles or meters, and significant landmarks. 4. Weather Fronts - Fronts are zones of transition between two different air masses. The zone may be 20 miles across or it may be 100 miles across, but from one side of a front to the other, one clearly would sense that the properties of an air mass had changed significantly (e.g., contrasts in temperature and dew point, wind direction, cloud cover, and on-going weather). The frontal zone represents the leading edge of a wedge of cold/cool air. If the wedge is moving into an area of warmer air, the front is called a cold front. If the wedge is retreating and warmer air is moving into an area previously occupied by cool air, the front is termed a warm front. To locate a front on a surface map, find: a. would the temperature be i. higher at A or B; ii. higher at B or C; b. would the dew point (moisture content of the air) be i. higher at A or B; ii. higher at B or C; c. shifts in wind direction, d. the wind direction i. at A would be from the SW or the NW; ii. at B would be from the SW or the NW; iii. at C would be from the SW or the NW; e. the pressure at i. A would be higher or lower than B; ii. B would be higher or lower than C; f. clouds and precipitation patterns; g. cold fronts move faster or slower than warm fronts. C A B 5. Wind Barb Interpretation The above chart shows barb symbol wind speeds and direction. a. The barb below would show a wind speed of _____________ and the wind blowing from the _____________. b. The barb below would show a wind speed of _____________ and the wind blowing from the _____________. 6. Spanish Armada a. “Armada pilots appear not to have had a rutter for the west of Ireland as they misidentified almost everything they saw.” Describe what this statement means. b. The Armada did not have the Wagenaer (1584) and Mercator (1594) maps with them. What specific features of these two maps could have helped the Armada pilots determine their longitude locations? c. Midlatitude cyclone d. Latitude and longitude in navigation e. What critical instrument did the Spanish Armada lack in the 16th century that was later developed in the 18th century, which is used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation? i. Astrolabe ii. Compass iii. Chronometer iv. Lead and line 7. Landforms: alluvial fan, alpine glacier, volcanism, convergent plate boundary, delta, divergent plate boundary, drainage basin, earthquake, fault, floodplain, glacier, igneous rocks, karst, lava, loess, longshore current, longshsore transport, magma, mantle, mechanical weathering, metamorphic rocks, moraine, outwash plain, overland flow, plate tectonics theory, seafloor spreading, sedimentary rocks, seismic waves, soil creep, surface erosion, tectonic plate, terminal moraine, transform plate boundary, tsunami, volcano, weathering.