walter scott - The Restoration Movement

• 1796 - Born in Scotland, October 1.
Educated at University of Edinburgh.
• 1818 – Came to New York at suggestion of
uncle, George Innes.
1820 – Moved to Pittsburgh.
Taught in school operated by
George Forrester who preached
for a Haldane church.
• After study of Bible, Scott immersed
by Forrester.
• 1820 Forrester drowned. Scott left
responsibility for school and
Forrester’s family.
1821 – Read tract “On Baptism”
by Henry Errett.
• Walked to New York to visit church,
• Returned to Pittsburgh to tutor Robert
Richardson and a few other boys.
• -At Richardson home, Scott met Alexander
Campbell for the first time.
1823 – Married Sarah
• Alexander Campbell asked Scott
to contribute articles for proposed
journal. Scott suggested the
name, Christian Baptist.
• Wrote under the name, “Philip”.
1826 – Moved to Steubenville,
• Planed to start a paper, The
Millennial Herald
• Alexander Campbell invited him
to attend meeting of Mahoning
Association. Scott invited to
preach on Sunday morning.
Report of churches for 1826.
• Sixteen churches reported 18
baptisms, six additions by letter
• Thirteen dismissed, 12 excluded and
11 died.
• Net loss of 12
1827 – Scott again attended
Association meeting.
• Scott hired as evangelist for
Western Reserve.
• Resigned from church, abandoned
paper and moved family to Western
“The conveyance gave to
Connecticut "all of the territory of
the present state and all of the
lands west of it, to the extent and
breadth, from sea to sea”
• This included all or part of ten
Here he preached the “Restored
• Faith, repentance, baptism,
remission of sins, gift of the Holy
• Called “Five Finger Exercise”.
• Conversion of William Amend.
• Description of Scott’s preaching
Report for 1827
• Scott baptized more than twice the
number of members in the
Association, over 1000
Alexander Campbell questioned
Scott’s great success.
• He sent his father Thomas to see if
Scott was preaching true gospel.
• He wrote Alexander Campbell that for
years they had understood the gospel
but they were not seeing it put into
• Thomas Campbell joined Scott in his
work on the Western Reserve.
1828 Scott appointed evangelist
for second year.
• William Hayden appointed to help
• “Brethren, give me my Bible, my
head and William Hayden and we
will go out and convert the world.”
• “Scott averaged baptizing 1,000 a
year for 30 years.”
“The Mahoning River became a
second Jordan; Walter Scott a
second John the Baptist”
1830 Mahoning Association so
transformed that it dissolved itself
out of existence.
Alexander Campbell said,
“Brethren, shall we never meet
again?” Began a yearly
consultation meeting.
1831 Exhausted by hectic
years as Mahoning evangelist
and death of his daughter, Scott
plunged into deep depression.
• Moved to Cincinnati.
• Started The Evangelist
• His sermons were disappointing.
Returned to Pittsburgh,
depression lifted.
1836 Selected first president of
Bacon College and served one
Comparison of Scott and
Campbell’s preaching. Quote #5
1849 Scott’s wife died. Moved to
Mays Lick, Kentucky. Married
Nannie Allen in 1850 who died
• 1855 Married a widow Eliza
Sandridge but this marriage
was unhappy.
• 1861 – Died April 23, buried
at Mays Lick.
Alexander Campbell wrote of
Scott, “Next to my father, he
was my most cordial and
indefatigable fellows laborer. . .
• “I knew him well. I knew him long.
I loved him much.
• “Methinks by the eye of faith I see
him in Abraham’s bosom”
Qualities of Scott
• Generous to a fault.
• Great humility
• Trained younger preachers
1788 – Born in Scott County,
• 1801 – Attended Cane Ridge
Revival, aged 13.
1811 Married Sophia Lewis
• 1813 – Became aide to General
William Henry Harrison in Indian
• 1815 Elected to state legislature,
served until 1819
1818 – Lost fortune of $50,000
(almost $600, 000 in 2005
dollars) to pay debts for which
he had signed notes.
• “I never felt happier in relieving
myself of nearly $50000 in real
1820 – Elected to U. S. House
of Representatives.
• Elected three terms in all.
His brother was Richard M.
Member of House of
Member of the Senate.
Vice President of Martin Van Buren,
1821 – John T. Johnson joined
Baptist Church.
• 1828 – Abandoned political life.
1829-30 Studied the Bible,
came under influenced of
Alexander Campbell.
• 1831 – Left Baptist Church and began
preaching. Organized Great
Crossings church, near Georgetown,
Kentucky. Baptized his wife, his
brother and brother’s wife.
• Became acquainted with Barton W.
1832 – He and John Smith took
lead in uniting Christians and
• 1832-34 Served as co-editor of
Christian Messenger with Barton
W. Stone.
1834 – Began school in
Georgetown. Before year was
out some of students could
recite the entire New Testament.
1835 – With B. F. Hall, he began
the Gospel Advocate in
• Johnson’s first article, “Practical
In 1836 was selected to the board
of directors of Bacon College.
• Johnson instrumental in its getting a
charter from the legislature.
• Gave liberally to school, raised
money for it.
1837 – He and Walter Scott
begin the Christian magazine.
1849 – Wife dies.
• Named as one of vice presidents
of Missionary Society.
1856 – Johnson dies, buried in
Lexington cemetery.
Dec. 18, 1856
Aged 69 Years
After 25 Years
Devoted Service To His
Savior's Cause, His Whole
Life Was Truly A Labour
Of Love. And His Works Do
Follow Him. Long Well He
Lives In The Hearts Of
Those For Whom He
Laboured. Thanks Be To
God Who Giveth Us The
Victory Through Our
Lord Jesus Christ.
Part 2
Campbell’s influence grew in
• The McCalla Debate
• Distribution of the Christian
• Campbell’s visits.
Powerful men came to understand
the Restoration according to
Campbell’s influence.
Raccoon John Smith
Jacob Creath, Sr.
Jacob Creah, Jr.
“First resident
preacher in
Kentucky to
takes a stand
for the . . .
Philip F. Fall
Similarities in Teaching of Campbell
and Stone
• Both sought union of Christians
• Both were attacked by the same
• Both believe in the independence
of the local congregation.
Difference between Stone and
Activity of the Holy Spirit
Nature of Christ
Name of church.
Difference in names members to be
• Stone: Christians
• Campbell: Disciples
Objection of “Christians” to
Alexander Campbell
Did not believe in heart-felt religion.
Baptism for the remission of sins
Lord’s Supper every Sunday
Communion with the un-immersed.
Stone said they were not Christians in
full sense.
• Role of women
• Foot washing
Unity on the Western Reserve
• Stone and Campbell preachers
began to swap and exchange
• Participated in meetings
• Growing feeling of fellowship
Unity in the Mahoning Association
• 1832 meeting 13 churches were
represented. Three Disciples
preachers present.
• The committee that selected Walter
Scott as evangelist included these
three preachers.
• Joseph Gaston, one of the preachers,
accompanied Scott at times. United at
least 7 churches.
• Scott served as a catalyst in the
Stone and Campbell
• Both men were close friends, both
believed in unity and agreed to work for it.
“The question is going the round of
society. . . Why are not you and
the Reformed Baptist one people? .
I have uniformly answered; In spirit
we are unite and that no reason
existed on our side to prevent
union in form.” Christian
Messenger, August 1831.
Stone took the lead in promoting
• 1831 In November John T. Johnson invited
John Smith to conduct a meeting at Great
Crossings church.
• They discussed unity and called for two,
four day meetings one in Georgetown and
the other in Lexington. Both groups were
invited to attend.
• The first meeting enjoyed great accord.
The next meeting was to decide on
This took place December 30,
1831-January 2, 1832 at Hill Street
meeting house.
Smith and Stone selected to speak.
Smith spoke first.
• They were to avoid doctrine and
give views on plan of union.
“God has one people on the earth.
He has given them but one Book,
and therein exhorts and commands
to be one family.
• “
“A union, such as we plead for—a
union of God’s people on that one
Book—must then be practicable.
“Let us, then, my brethren, be no
longer Campbellites or Stoneites,
or New Lights or Old Lights, or any
other kind of lights,
“but let us all come to the Bible,
and to the Bible alone, as the only
book in the world that can give us
all the Light we need.” John Smith
“I have not one objection to the
ground laid down by him as the
scriptural basis of union. . . And I
am willing to give him, now and
here, my hand.” Barton W. Stone.
Many churches did not attend.
• John Smith and John Rogers were
appointed to go together among the
churches and promote unity.
• Rogers continued three years and Smith
somewhat longer.
• Alexander Campbell was reluctant to
accept the union
• He rejoiced at the meeting at
Lexington but saw a union of whole
brotherhood was premature.
• He saw his group yielding on some
differences while bearing with the
other group till they learned better.
Yet he wrote, “We rejoice to hear
that the utmost harmony and
Christian love prevail, not only
among the disciples composing this
congregation between them, and
the disciples meeting under the
Christian name.
. . . Notwithstanding the sparring
between us editors.
Smith, Johnson, Scott and
Campbell agreed to meet to edit a
new song book to promote unity.
• Instead, Scott and Campbell met and
selected the hymns and wrote the preface
to the book.
• They called it “The Disciples Hymn Book”
• Stone objected greatly.
• Campbell in deference to Stone, changed
the name but not the preface.
• Scott did not change his part of the books.
Results of the union
Great growth.
• The Christians brought to the
union an evangelistic zeal the
Disciples had not had.
• The Disciples brought a more
systematic view of doctrine.
• Some Stone churches did not
unite with group.
In 1834, Stone stepped aside from
the leadership.
• Yet, he considered the union to be
“the noblest act of my life.”
Moved to Jacksonville, llinois.
Merged two churches
Freed slaves
Started Berean College
Died 1844