Annual Review of Environment and Resources

Midterm Review 2014
to be held in FSC 1005, not the
normal room
• Themes
• Readings
• Cases
How to thrive in exams
Analytical Framework: Forces at work
in natural resources policy
Analytical Framework: Forces at work
in natural resources policy
who decides
who participates
at what level
Biophysical characteristics
Resource characteristics
Exchange rates
Supply and demand
Trade restrictions
Institutions and Governance
• Policies are produced through governance processes, influenced by
environment and markets.
• Governance addresses who decides, who participates, at what level
of government, and with which instruments.
• Canadian forest policy is dominated by the provincial level of
• BC’s government is dominated by the executive, particularly the
• Courts have played a limited role in forest policy, with the
exception of Aboriginal issues, because of the discretionary nature
of BC statutes.
• Institutional design matters because the balance of preferences
may change as the location of authority changes
Actors: Strategies and Resources
• Actors in the policy process have interests and
resources, and adopt strategies designed to best use
those resources in pursuit of their interests
• Politicians are primarily driven by electoral incentives,
making public opinion a significant constraint on
government action
• Business control over investment gives it a structural
• Public opinion is far more influential on policy makers
when it is salient
• Environmentalists have effectively used marketoriented strategies to increase their power
First Nations
• First Nations have effectively used the courts
to increase their power
• The BC government has undergone a
profound shift in relations towards First
Nations, from active repression through
resistance and now apparently sincere efforts
at reconciliation
November 21, 2013
International Influences
• Changes in international markets and technology
have undercut BC’s comparative advantage
• A combination of globally valued resources and
reliance on trade makes BC highly vulnerable to
international influences
• Certification has increased the influence of
private standard-setting organizations but there is
little evidence of on-the-ground impacts
US Influence
• US trade pressures have pushed costs up and
constrained BC’s policy sovereignty.
• BC’s market-oriented forest policy reforms
were strongly influenced by trade pressures by
the United States
5 stage Policy Cycle Model
Policy Formulation
Policy Implementation
Monitoring and Evaluation
Policy Cycle
• Issues get on the government agenda through
a confluence of problem and politics streams
November 21, 2013
Policy Cycle
Policy Formulation
• Policy formulation involves both “thinking”
(analysis) and “talking” (consultation with
• Collaborative planning or
“multistakeholderism” has been a BC success
story in land use, but the government is no
longer using it
November 21, 2013
13 readings
• Benjamin Cashore, George Hoberg, Michael Howlett, Jeremy Rayner, and
Jeremy Wilson, In Search of Sustainability: Forest Policy in British Columbia
in the 1990s, (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2001), pp. 3-7, 17, 20-29 (reading
• Ministry of Forests, Lands, and Natural Resource Operations, Area-Based
Tenure Discussion Paper. 2014.
• Daniel Kahan, “What Is Motivated Reasoning and How Does It Work?,
Science and Religion Today May 4, 2011.
• George Hoberg, “Ambition Without Capacity: Environmental and Natural
Resource Policy in the Campbell Era,” forthcoming in The Campbell
Revolution: Power and Politics in British Columbia 2001-2011.
13 readings
• Auditor General of BC, An Audit of Carbon Neutral Government,
March 2013,
rt/OAG%20Carbon%20Neutral.pdf, pp 12-31. Note: you are
responsible for the general issues and the details of the Darkwoods
case, but not responsible for the details of the Encana case.
• Special Committee on Timber Supply, Growing Fibre, Growing
Value, Victoria: Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, August
2012. Pp 1-2, 15-16
• Marty Luckert, David Haley, and George Hoberg, Policies for
Sustainably Managing Canada’s Forests: Provincial Tenure,
Stumpage Fees, and Forest Practices, (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2011),
Chapter 1
13 readings
• Jason Forsyth, George Hoberg, and Laura Bird, “In Search of
Certainty: A Decade of Shifting Strategies for Accommodating First
Nations in Forest Policy, 2001-11,” pp. 299-312 in Aboriginal Peoples
and Forest Lands in Canada, Vancouver: UBC Press, edited by D.B.
Tindall, Ronald L. Trosper and Pamela Perreault. (in reading packet)
• Supreme Court of Canada, Tsilhqot’in Nation v. British Columbia,
2014 SCC 44, June 26, 2014. You may find the entire decision
interesting to read, but you are only responsible for the case
summary (unnumbered pp. 5-11) and paragraphs 67-88 of main
• Sarah Pralle, Branching Out, Digging In: Environmental Advocacy
and Agenda-Setting. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press,
2005), Chapter 1 (pp 13-31). (reading packet)
13 readings
• Graeme Auld, L. H. Gulbrandsen, and C. McDermott,
“Certification Schemes and the Impact on Forests and
Forestry,” Annual Review of Environment and Resources
(2008) 33 (1):187-211. On line through UBC library
• Carl Patton and Sawicki, Basic Methods of Policy Analysis
and Planning, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993),
2nd Edition, pp. 52-65 (reading packet)
• Drea Cullen et al, “Collaborative Planning in Complex
Stakeholder Environments: An Evaluation of a Two-Tiered
Collaborative Planning Model,” Society & Natural Resources
2 (2010): 332–350. Read pp. 332-9 only.
Midterm Timber Supply
Forest Revitalization Plan
Softwood Lumber Agreement
Great Bear Rainforest
Tsilhqot’in case
Midterm to be held in FSC 1005, not the normal