• If the percentage of Earth’s surface is
30% land, what percent is covered by water?
• From largest to smallest, choose the sequence that shows the correct amounts of water on Earth.
A. Liquid freshwater, solid freshwater, saltwater
B. Saltwater, solid freshwater, liquid freshwater
C. Saltwater, liquid freshwater, groundwater
D. Groundwater, saltwater, solid freshwater
• Think about the amounts of saltwater and fresh water on Earth.
Approximately what percentage of
Earth’s water is fresh water?
A. 97 percent
B. 71 percent
C. 30 percent
D. 3 percent
• In what form is most freshwater found?
A. water vapor
D. lakes and rivers
• How can water be scarce when almost three-fourths of the Earth is covered by water?
Most of Earth’s water is salty water
Most of Earth’s water is underground
Most of Earth’s water is in the atmosphere
Most of Earth’s water is frozen at the poles
• Water may seep underground and fill cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers. This water is referred to as ___.
D. water vapor.
• When water is heated by the Sun, the atmospheric conditions change the state of water from a liquid to a gas.
Identify this step in the water cycle.
• Plants use water to undergo photosynthesis. They also release water into the atmosphere. Plants contribute to which part of the water cycle with this release of water?
• When water vapor cools and condenses, clouds form as water droplets clump around tiny dust particles. Identify this step in the water cycle.
• Where on Earth’s surface does most evaporation occur and most precipitation fall?
A. plants and soil
B. the oceans
C. the mountains
• Ocean water consists of dissolved particles and gasses. Salinity is a measure of which of the following in the ocean water?
A. carbon dioxide
C. dissolved salts
• What is the average salinity of ocean water?
• Salinity affects
A. the density and freezing point of water.
B. the temperature of air near the oceans.
C. the amount of fresh water entering the oceans through rivers.
D. the amount of oxygen found in ocean water.
• Which of the following is the
ULTIMATE source of the ocean’s salinity?
A. the weathering and erosion of rocks and the chemicals from volcanic eruptions
B. the breaking down of the shells of ocean organisms
C. pollution by human industries
D. erosion and deposition by rivers
• What is the most abundant salt in sea water?
A. sodium chloride
B. magnesium chloride
C. calcium chloride
D. potassium chloride
• Which of the following areas in an ocean is likely to have the lowest salinity?
A. a warm tropical gulf
B. the cold Arctic Ocean
C. where a large river empties into the ocean
D. the deep parts of the Pacific Ocean
• All of the oceans are connected. We have made imaginary boundaries to divide this water by geographic locations. What is the correct order from the largest to smallest of these oceans?
A. Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, Arctic
B. Atlantic, Pacific, Southern, Arctic, Indian
C. Arctic, Southern, Indian, Atlantic, Pacific
D. Indian, Southern, Pacific, Arctic, Atlantic
• If a cruise ship is traveling from Brazil
(east coast of South America) to the
United Kingdom (Europe), which ocean is it sailing?
A. Indian Ocean
B. Atlantic Ocean
C. Pacific Ocean
D. Southern Ocean
• Which of the following features is made up of a range of mountains that wind through the ocean?
C. abyssal plain
D. mid-ocean ridge
• Each day water levels on the coastlines change as there are two high tides and two low tides. Each month there are spring tides and neap tides. What causes these tides to occur?
A. strong winds that blow over ocean waters.
B. the gravitational pull of Earth, the moon, and the sun.
C. the shifting of the plates on the ocean floor.
D. variations in the salinity of ocean water.
• Sailboats can travel around the world using large streams of moving water that flow through the oceans. These fast-moving ____ help the sailboats to speed up their travel time.
• Over which part of Earth’s oceanic lithosphere is the water shallowest?
A. abyssal plain
B. mid-ocean ridge
C. continental shelf
D. continental slope
• The size of waves in the ocean is NOT affected by which of the following
A. length of time the wind blows across the water.
B. salinity of the water.
C. strength of the wind.
D. distance the wind blows across the water.
• What causes cold deep currents to begin moving in the oceans near the poles?
A. Coriolis effect
B. the sinking of dense cold water
C. the movement of a large mass of warm water across the Pacific Ocean
D. the movement of glaciers
• Which is formed as energy is transferred from the wind through the water?
• In the Pacific Ocean, off the west coast of
South America, many people depend on fishing for food and jobs. In this area, winds blow warm surface water away from the shore causing cold, deep ocean water to flow upward. This cold water replaces the warm water and brings minerals, nutrients, and enormous schools of fish to the surface. This process is known as ___.
B. a surface current.
C. the Coriolis effect.
D. El Nino.
• Water seeps through the soil from runoff, lakes, ponds, and rivers. This water is called groundwater. Which of the following terms refers to the area of rock that holds groundwater?
C. water table
D. artesian well
• Sarah’s family is trying to reduce the amount of water they use around their home. Using less water is one way to practice water ___.
• If a cruise ship is traveling from the east coast of Africa toward the northwest coast of Australia, in which ocean is it sailing?