9.4 Genetic Engineering

9.4 Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering is about changing the DNA
sequences of organisms.
9.4 Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering Technique #1:
Entire organisms can be cloned.
• A clone is a genetically identical copy of a gene or of
an organism.
The original
CC, short for Copy
Cat, is the first
successfully cloned
9.4 Genetic Engineering
• Cloning occurs in nature.
– bacteria (binary fission)
– some plants (from roots)
– some simple animals (budding, regeneration)
9.4 Genetic Engineering
• Mammals can be cloned through a process called nuclear
– nucleus is removed from an egg cell
– nucleus of a cell from the animal to be cloned is
implanted in the egg
9.4 Genetic Engineering
One of first mammals to be successfully cloned was a sheep.
9.4 Genetic Engineering
The adult sheep is Dolly,
the first mammal cloned
from an adult cell.
The lamb is Dolly’s
offspring, called Bonnie.
9.4 Genetic Engineering
• Cloning has potential benefits.
– organs for transplant into humans
– save endangered species
• Cloning raises concerns.
– low success rate
– clones “imperfect” and less healthy than original animal
– decreased biodiversity
9.4 Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering Technique #2: Recombinant DNA
New genes can be added to an organism’s DNA.
• Genetic engineering involves changing an organism’s
DNA to give it new traits.
• Genetic engineering is based on the use of
recombinant DNA.
• Recombinant DNA contains genes from more than
one organism.
(bacterial DNA)
9.4 Genetic Engineering
• Process involves:
– Bacterial plasmids are often used to make
recombinant DNA.
– Steps:
1. plasmids are loops of
DNA in bacteria
2. restriction enzymes cut
plasmid and foreign DNA
3. foreign gene inserted
into plasmid
9.4 Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering Technique #3: GMO’s
A GMO = a “Genetically Modified Organism”
• A “GMO” or transgenic organism has one or more
genes from another organism inserted into its genome.
9.4 Genetic Engineering
• GMO (Transgenic) bacteria can be used to produce
human proteins.
– gene inserted into plasmid
– plasmid inserted into bacteria
– bacteria express the gene
• GMO (Transgenic) plants are common in agriculture.
– transgenic bacteria
infect a plant
– plant expresses
foreign gene
– many crops are now
genetically modified
9.4 Genetic Engineering
Examples of how transgenic bacteria and plants are
being used:
1. Transgenic Bacteria
Now make insulin, growth hormone, and clotting
factor cheaply and in great abundance)
2. Transgenic Plants
52% of soybeans and 25% of corn are transgenic
Different varieties are resistant to disease,
produce their own insecticide, resist weed-killing
chemicals, and/or have increased vitamin content
9.4 Genetic Engineering
• GMO (Transgenic) animals are used to study
diseases and gene functions.
– Ex. transgenic mice used to study development
and disease
– gene “knockout mice” used to study gene function
Knockout mouse on left lacks gene for protein leptin,
which helps to control food intake. Used in obesity studies.
9.4 Genetic Engineering
• Scientists have concerns about some uses of genetic
– possible long-term health effects? of eating GM foods
– possible effects of GM plants on ecosystems and
biodiversity ?