Chapter 13 Part 2 (2014) Guided Notes

Chapter 13 B
Post Jacksonian Democracy / Texas
Revolution /
Mexican-American War / Territorial
• Jacksonian (_____________)
• Problem:
– Piggy-backed off of Jacksonian Democracy / Inherited
Jackson’s enemies and issues form the Panic of 1837
The Whig Party wanted to increase tariffs, but Van Buren
responded with the “___________” – federal government
________________________________all together! (antiHamiltonian / BOUS view)
(1) Setting up an “_________________” – extra money
will go into “___________” not banks! –
Manifest Destiny
• God-given right to move West!
Purpose: Expand Westward toward the
(1) Pacific Coast
(2) Mexican territory
Goals to spread:
• __________________
• __________________
• __________________!
Native American Opinion / European ideology / Justification of Manifest
I think that one of the things that happens in the process of conquest, the people
of military power who conquer another people, is that, it stimulates a certain pattern
of thought. It’s a very ethnocentric, European ideology, the ideology of the ideal. The
Americans are now thinking that they are at the top of, at the forefront of the project
of civilization. And the only thing that counts as legitimate are those things that
contribute to its idea of progress. And of course Indians are not perceived to be
civilized, or part of the story of progress. They were an obstacle, you had to clear them
away, then you had progress.
So what they called the movement west was, Manifest Destiny. Now there was a
utopian ideology if ever there was one. What’s underlying that is the idea that God, or
some power had designated this group of people to sweep across the continent. It’s
their destiny to do this, and anything that stands in their way, like the idea that other
people already own this land, have their own societies, in order to do it, you have to
commit crimes against humanity. In other words, you feel you are justified in killing in
order to carry out what must be what God, or whatever you want to call it, has
John Mohawk, Ph. D.
Professor of American Studies
SUNY Buffalo
• Chief Joseph “________” to go…many battles
occur between the white man an the Nez
Perce tribe (Idaho and Canada)
• “I will fight no more, forever”
- Chief Joseph
(surrender speech)
• Why go West???
*Oregon Trail*
- ____________: (a religious family) Dr. Marcus Whitman and his
wife, Narcissa, set ___________________(CONVERT Native Americans to
Christianity and to teach them medical services.)
Whitman Massacre: Measles epidemic break out and the local tribe’s people
died and the white people did not. The Whitman's’ are blamed and murdered
(with 12 other white missionaries) by the local tribe and the mission was
burned down
Going to Texas
WHY TEXAS?!?! (Manifest Destiny / land to grow cotton / slavery issue is raised!)
• Texas territory is owned by Spain
• American settlers ask Spain if they could enter Texas and Spain says no
• Mexico has a revolution against Spain and ALLOWS American settlers to enter Texas territory.
In 1823, ______________ (impresario) led families into Texas with the conditions that
The first two conditions were ignored without concern, the third condition was outright broken since
their main reason for going to Texas was to grow cotton.
In 1830, Mexico freed its slaves (against what the SOUTH believed in) To the Texans, those were fighting
Conflict emerged and Texans were jailed while protesting (including Stephen Austin in Mexico City).
Mexican president _____________ had had enough by 1835
and got together an army to teach the Texans a lesson.
First Battle: ______________________________
(Ends in a Mexican withdrawal)
Story: Mexico loaned a cannon to Texans to fight off Native America
Attacks. Mexico wanted it back – and Texans claimed “come and take it”
• Texans rebelled against Santa Anna’s orders and war begins
Santa Anna led 6,000 soldiers to the
__________________________ (MEXICAN VICTORY)
There he destroyed about 200 stubborn Texans, including William Travis, Davy
Crockett, and Jim Bowie. The battle cry “_____________!" was heard across
Length: 13 days / Texans not prepared
Turning Point of Texas Revolution:
Led by Sam Houston
(granting Texas independence)
Result: Republic of Texas
Texas vs. U.S. Congress
• Topic / issue: __________________________!
• Problem: SLAVERY!!!!!!!!! (KNOW THIS!!!!)
North = _________________________
South = _________________________
Others = _____________________
Congressional response: TEXAS WILL NOT BE
STATE, but will become the
****___________________(leader: Sam Houston)
Independence of Texas in 1836 (new president – Van
Texas is an independent country / UNITED STATES
wants it (gets it with POLK)
Mexico reacts = ANGRY!!!!!!
Why was “Congress” worried?
• Texas Independence in 1836
(1) ___________________
(2) ______________would deplete
in Southern region
(3) Texas was “_________” with
Undercuts the __________*(Foreign
influence in Western
Hemisphere – directly in Texas)
(4) War with Mexico
(Emancipation of slavery =
1840 Presidential Election
William Henry Harrison “__________________________________”
(Hero of Battle of Tippecanoe during the War of 1812)
- Wanted to prove he was as powerful as he was
during the War of 1812 and read his inaugural
address on a cold wet day with no coat in April of
- Died of pneumonia in May of 1841.
- Shortest presidency in American history
- 30 ½ days
- John Tyler (V.P. of Harrison) takes over (41-44)
- Most noted: ___________________– peaceful
border in _____________ area between America
and the British
______ Presidential
JAMES K. POLK (_____________________________)
(1) _____________________
(2) _________________ (1845)
(3) __________________(1848)
OREGON COUNTRY: “________________________” (post Treaty of Ghent)
(U.S. and Britain)
***1844 Presidential Election***
– James K. Polk’s wanted
the “entire” area of __________ to be annexed
into the Union
***** _____________________________*****
Polk’s SLOGAN for Oregon
54 40 – latitude
*Land above 49 degree line in infertile / given
To the British
• Sends ___________to Mexico with $25
million to offer to Santa Anna for Mexico.
• Santa Anna turns him away
• Polk takes action:
- sends U.S. troops to the Rio Grande River
to fight Mexico….Santa Anna argues that
the Rio Grande River was NOT the border
• U.S. = border was _____________________
• Mexico = border was _______________
***********Cause of War with Mexico =
Boundary Issues lead to the
MEXICAN WAR (1846-1848)
(U.S. vs. Mexico)
*Mexican War and Texas Revolution –
two separate events
Santa Anna crosses the Rio Grande
(makes him the aggressor)
Mexican- American War (18461848)
Main Cause: BORDERS!
Mexico – Border between Mexico and America is the Nueces River
America – Border between Mexico and America
is the Rio Grande River
*Turning point: Santa Anna and Mexican troops pass over the
Psychological Goal: make Santa Anna appear to be the aggressor
End Result: Congress declares War!
• Abraham Lincoln
– Then, a Congressman, that promoted his
“Spot Resolutions” – questioned who actually owned the
“disputed area”
3 Main Phases of the
Mexican-American War
1st goal: ___________________
- _________________(Long Marcher) – marched from
New Mexico to San Diego to claim California for the
U.S. – tried to rid California of Mexican soldiers
- _______________________
2nd goal: ______________________
(Hero: Zachary Taylor – blocks Rio Grande / hero of
Battle at Buena Vista)
3rd goal: _____________________(Hero:
___________and ________________)
* Trist and Polk work out a deal with Santa Anna….
Guadalupe Hidalgo
What OFFICIALLY ends the
Mexican War?????
(1) _______________________
(2)Rio Grande River will be the _________
between United States and Mexico
(3) ____________(established the
southwestern part of U.S.)
*$15 million
Legacy of Mexican-American War:
Turning point of Latin-American and U.S. relations
*remember: Monroe Doctrine
*******MAIN PURPOSE**********
– To build a _______________from New
Orleans the Pacific Ocean
– Guidelines:
• Congress spent an
additional $10 million
for a small strip of land to in order to
“build a railroad and
complete the continental U.S.”
Slavery Issue in New Land
• Congressman __________proclaims his
“_______________” (1846) – any land
purchased or won as a result of the
Mexican-American War shall be _______ to
Goal / Event
(1) Moving West / Manifest Destiny
(2) Native American
& White Settler Relationship
(3) Mormon / Religious Freedom
(4) Social Reform (include education,
prison, temperance, & women’s rights)
(5) Occupying “full” Oregon Territory
(6) Texas Independence
(7) Texas Statehood
(8) California Annexation
(9) Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
(10) Gadsden Purchase
(11) Wilmot Proviso
Groups / Countries
involved (all)
Pos. and Neg. Effects
• Directions:
– Rank AND defend 2 pieces of land based on how beneficial it
was to America. Pick 2 more pieces of land and explain how
ineffective it was to the success of American growth. Your
choices should honor given events, themes, characters and
issues at the time they were acquired. Total = 4 areas
2 = Most beneficial and 2 = Least beneficial
– 1783 Peace Treaty with Britain
– 1803 Louisiana Purchase
– 1818 Upper Peace Treaty with Britain
– 1819 Spanish Cession / Adams – Onis Treaty
– 1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty
– 1845 Texas Annexation
– 1846 Oregon Territory
– 1848 Mexican Cession
– 1853 Gadsden Purchase