Struggle for NA Review

Struggle for NA
Pham SS 10
Britain vs. France
• Fighting over land, power, and wealth
• Treaty:
– An agreement between two groups of people
– When treaties ended their wars, LANDS changed
to a different owner
• War of Spanish Succession > Treaty of Utrecht
• Seven Years War > Treaty of Paris 1763
Britain vs. France
• Two main struggles:
– Control the fur country
(west to the Rocky
mtns and Ohio Valley)
– Control the Atlantic
(Louisbourg, Halifax,
Struggle for the Fur Country
• Britain > HBC 1670 > Trading ports where?
• France > Native Guides > Explored where?
(Frontenac late 1600s)
• Britain > HBC ran by a group of merchants
who wanted PROFIT
• France > Ran by the gov’t who wanted PROFIT
and COLONY (reason for seigneuries)
War for Spanish Succession
• Fought over control of
Hudson Bay area
• Treaty of Utrecht 1713
– Ended the war
– Made all of the Hudson
Bay posts British property
– France gives up (loses
Acadia and
Newfoundland; access to
Hudson Bay)
Struggle to the Atlantic
• French colonies of Ile Royale (Cape Breton)
and Acadia
• Louisbourg 1720, centre of French power, was
located in Ille Royale – built in response to…?
• Fishing was important
• Louisbourg fortress > Strong or weak?
• Halifax 1749 – British built fortress to protect
against Native/French raids
Oath of Allegiance
• French Acadians had a year
to leave after Utrecht
• Refused to take an oath to
the British Crown several
• British concerned;
threatened to deport
• Deportation 1755 – taken
to Louisiana
• Homes burnt, property and
land taken
Seven Years War 1756
• French kept most soldiers in Europe to fight
• Britain sent 7-8 times more men to NA
• Mission to control the St. Lawrence River
Three-Pronged Attack
1. Louisbourg 1758 – Weaken French and
control the River; less than 60 days
2. Ohio Valley – worried that French would
attack from their back; pushed them out
3. Quebec – center of French power; 1759
General James Wolfe led the attack; 3
months unsuccessful; decides to attack
upriver to block Quebec’s supplies
Plains of Abraham
Read account Pg. 71
Montcalm (French) vs. Wolfe (British)
Sept 13, 1759 – Montcalm’s men were split up;
had to make a decision to attack now, wait and
attack from behind, or stay in Quebec
Montcalm ordered his men to fight, but they
were not used to fighting on the field
Less than an hour, the British won
Montcalm and Wolfe both died from wounds
Read account Pg. 72
Practice Quiz
1. What is a treaty?
2. Britain and France – TWO main struggles
3. What were the two differences between
Britain and France for the fur country? (Think
location of forts, profit, and colony)
Practice Quiz
4. What Treaty in 1713 ended the War of Spanish
5. What did this treaty change in NA?
6. What, where, and why – Louisbourg?
7. Why were the Acadians deported?
8. Describe and explain Britain’s 3-Pronged Attack.
9. Describe in detail the Battle of Plains of
British Military Rule
• Canadiens continued to hope that New
France would be returned (Montreal 1760;
Seven Years War 1763)
• Between 1760 – 63 – British set up a
temporary gov’t “British Military Occupation”
• Time of uncertainty (deportation, property)
• French language, law, language, religion
Treaty of Paris 1763
• War in Europe ended
• France gave up all of New France and Acadia
to Britain
• Effects:
Economic stability was restored
Military courts used French civil law
French assured they would not be deported
Roman Catholic religion kept
Seigneurial system kept
What to do with the Canadiens?
• Britain > Ethnocentrism
– Deportation?
– Maintain the status-quo?
– Isolation of Natives, French,
– Assimilation?
– Biculturalism?
Proclamation of 1763
Britain issued a royal proclamation outlining
what to do with Quebec
– Assimilation
– British institution, laws, customs, language, and
religion enforced
– Attract British settlers
– Limit the size – cutting the Montreal fur traders out
of the western fur trade
– Reassure that Natives protected in Ohio Valley
After Proclamation of 1763
• Anglo-Americans from 13
Colonies moved westward;
not to Quebec
• Natives upset; promised a
western reserve where
colonists could not go
• Governor James Murray –
First appointed Gov.
The Quebec Act 1774
Passed in attempt to keep the
loyalty of the Canadiens
Allowed the Canadiens to maintain
French character of Quebec and
preserve the French culture
Quebec would become both
British and French
Ruled by an appointed British
governor and an appointed