Electric Power System Reliability

Electric Power System Reliability -2012
William H. Smith, P.E.
Powersmiths International is recognized by the North American Electric Reliability
Corporation as a continuing education provider that adheres to NERC Continuing
Education Program Criteria.
Cover by Rondee Wood
©Powersmiths International, Inc. 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012
All Rights Reserved.
Standards Development and Monetary Penalties
Chapter 1.
Chapter 2.
Chapter 3.
Chapter 4.
Chapter 5.
Chapter 6.
Chapter 7.
Chapter 8.
Resource and Demand Balancing
NERC Standards BAL-001, 003, 004, 005, 006
Voltage Control and Reactive Power
NERC Standard VAR-001, 002
Power System Disturbance and Contingency Response
NERC Standard BAL-002
Reliability Operating Limits and Reliability Coordination
NERC Standards IRO-004, 005, TOP-004, 007, 008
IRO-001, 002, 003 ,008, 009, 010, 014, 015, 016, FAC-011,014
Transmission Congestion
NERC Standards IRO-006,
FAC- 005, 008, 009, 012, 013, MOD-001,004, 006, 007, 008
Emergency Operations
NERC Standards EOP-001 thru 004, 008
Power System Restoration
NERC Standards EOP-005, 006, 007, 009
Transmission System Operations
NERC Standards TOP-001, 002, 003, 005, 006
PRC-001, 004, 005, 007 thru 011, 015 thru 018, 021 thru 023
Chapter 9.
NERC Standards INT-001 thru 010
Chapter 10. Transmission Planning
NERC Standards MOD-010, 012,016-021,
TPL-001 thru 004, FAC-010
Chapter 11. Cyber Infrastructure
NERC Standards CIP-001 thru 009
Chapter 12. Communications
NERC Standards COM-001, 002
Chapter 13. Personnel Performance, Training and Qualifications
NERC Standards PER-001 thru 004
Chapter 14. Facilities Design, Connections and Maintenance
NERC Standards FAC-001, 002, 003
Chapter 15. Nuclear Plant Interface Coordination
Chapter 16. Power System Stability
Chapter 17. Power System Simulation
Answers to Questions
About the Author
OPS-X Power System Simulator Demo – CD insert Back Cover
Electric Power System Reliability-2012 is designed to serve as an aid for those
preparing for the NERC System Operator Certification exams and those seeking to
familiarize themselves with the power system fundamentals necessary to fully
understand and properly implement the NERC Reliability Standards.
“Electric Power System Reliability-2006” was first offered in July, 2006. It was
popular and served its purpose. “EPSR-2007” was an updated version of the 2006
book including the new and revised NERC Standards on which the July, 2007
NERC exams were to be based and some new questions to promote understanding.
The new NERC exams were delayed and ultimately implemented in July, 2008.
NERC has announced new System Operator Certification Exams for 2012. The
exams are expected to go live in February, 2012. The exams are based on the
NERC Reliability Standards effective October 1, 2011.
The NERC System Operator Certification Exams which were implemented in July,
2008 test on the NERC Standards which were effective on January 30, 2007. There
might be questions on any or all of the Reliability Standards that were effective on
January 30, 2007, particularly the following: NERC Glossary of Terms, BAL 001
– 006; CIP 001; COM 001 and 002; EOP 001 – 006 and 008; FAC 004; INT 001,
003, 004, 006 – 009; IRO 001, 004 – 006, and 016; PRC 001 and 004; TOP 001 –
003, 005 - 008; and VAR 001.
The NERC System Operator Certification Exams which were implemented in
February, 2012 will test on the NERC Standards which were effective on October
1, 2011; particularly the NERC Glossary of Terms and the BAL, COM, EOP, INT,
IRO, TOP, VAR Standards.
This 2012 edition is a transition edition addressing both the 2008 and the 2012
exams. It is an update to our previous 2011 edition but is modified to address the
October 1, 2011 Standards also. It contains the Standards in effect on January 30,
2007 on which the NERC exams implemented in July, 2008 are based and the
Standards in effect as of October 1, 2011on which the 2012 exam will be based.
The presentation of the Standards has been updated to highlight those considered
to be most important in preparing for the NERC exam and those which have the
greatest impact on system reliability.
As always, we will present the Standards in the context of power system
fundamentals, the understanding of which is required to properly implement those
The NERC Approved Reliability Standards are organized into fourteen topical
blocks on the NERC website:
BAL—Resource and Demand Balancing
CIP—Critical Infrastructure Protection
EOP—Emergency Preparedness and Operations
FAC—Facilities Design, Connections and Maintenance
INT—Interchange Scheduling and Coordination
IRO—Interconnection Reliability Operations and Coordination
MOD—Modeling, Data, and Analysis
PER—Personnel Performance, Training and Qualifications
PRC—Protection and Control
TOP—Transmission Operations
TPL—Transmission Planning
VAR—Voltage and Reactive
This book is organized in seventeen chapters each addressing a fundamental of
Power System Reliability. Rather than present the Reliability Standards strictly in
the NERC alphabetic Standards blocks, the Standards are presented in the context
of the appropriate power system fundamentals. This organization is designed to
provide the technical information required to understand the Standards and
provide relevance and perspective to highlight the purpose of each Standard or
group of Standards. This presentation format is designed to frame each group of
standards so that information can be more easily assimilated and retained by
electric power system operating personnel.
Each chapter is designed around a fundamental of Power System Reliability and its
associated NERC Standards. Background information is presented to explain the
purpose, intent and technical relevance of the Standards in that group. Key
requirements of the Standards are summarized. Finally, any remaining
requirements from the Standards group are presented for completeness.
This book is not intended as a complete and comprehensive representation of the
NERC Reliability Standards. Power system professionals should continue to
consult the NERC web site and other NERC publications for a comprehensive and
current statement of the NERC Reliability Standards and their requirements,
measures and compliance levels.
Powersmiths has developed a set of DVD’s based upon its 40 hour NERC System
Operator Certification Exam preparation course. The DVD’s show excerpts from a
presentation of that class and total approximately 30 hours. They address all of the
material included on the NERC exams.
The DVD’s parallel our text “Electric Power System Reliability” (provided with
the DVD’s). The DVD’s can be purchased as a set or individually addressing
specific chapters of the text. The DVD’s comprise lecture and a demonstration of
certain OPS-X simulation exercises. The OPS-X simulation exercises can be
purchased separately.
The DVD’s address specific questions similar to those found on the NERC exams.
The DVD’s are designed as an aid for those preparing for any of the NERC
certification exams who prefer a classroom lecture experience.
As with all of our training materials, satisfaction is guaranteed or your money will
be refunded.