Problems and Issues Facing India Major problems & Issues in India today Overpopulation 1 billion & climbing. Economic development. Hindu-Muslim tensions. Gender issues dowry killings. Caste bias discrimination against untouchables continues. The Kashmir dispute and nuclear weapons. Political assassinations. India and the Subcontinent • Conflict over Kashmir – India & Pakistan – Irrigation – Pride • Nuclear Weapons – India & Pakistan • Flood control – India & Bangladesh • Humanitarian Aid – India & Bangladesh Urbanization and Poverty Daily life in India is centered around cities, villages, and religion. Cities Villages • Two largest cities— Mumbai (Bombay) and Kolkata (Calcutta) • Most Indians live in rural areas. • Plays a key role in Indian daily life • Most villagers work as farmers and live with an extended family. • Most practice Hinduism. • Bangalore and Mumbai— universities, research centers, and high-tech businesses • Most people struggle to earn a living in the cities. • Paved roads and electricity have only recently reached many Indian villages. Religion • Many follow other religions (Islam, Buddhism, etc.). • Millions practice Sikhism and Jainism. • Religious celebrations are important. 2 Daily Life • • • About 7 out of 10 Indians live in villages and farm for a living. Houses belonging to more prosperous families in a village are made of better materials than those of poorer villagers, most of which include only a charpoy, or wooden bed frame with knotted string in place of a mattress. For religious and economic reasons, Indians follow a mostly vegetarian diet, and most Indians eat some form of rice every day. 70% Rural 600,000 villages Poverty Abounds Four of every ten people in India struggle to live on the equivalent of less than $1.25 /day Comparative Statistics for Selected Countries in South Asia % Arable Land Pop. Density /km GDP PPP % Literate Life Exp. Poverty Rate India 49% 392 $2,800 61% 70 yrs 25% Pakistan 24% 199 $2,600 50% 65 yrs 24% Nepal 16% 226 $1,700 49% 65 yrs 31% Bangladesh 55% 1165 $1,500 43% 60 yrs 45% Poverty is a tremendous problem in South Asia Consider these indicators of poverty for the countries of South Asia Today India faces many challenges, including a growing population and economic development. Population • India is the world’s second most populous country. • India’s huge population places a strain on India’s environment and resources. • Urbanization is taking place. Urbanization is the increase in the percentage of people who live in cities. Urbanization trends in India Year Urban Total Population population In million 1800 1950 2000 2008 2030 2% 30% 47% ~50% ~ 60% 140 360 1027 1160 2050 Source: UN, Urbanization prospects, the 1999 revision 14 Urbanization Growth • If India does grow rapidly, one would expect about 75% of India’s population would be urbanized by 2050 • Urban population in 2050 = 75% of 1.6 billion = 1.2 billion • Urban population today = 28% of 1.002 billion = 280 million • Urban population would increase by 920 million by 2050 (almost 20 million new urban residents a year) • Can India cope with such rapid urbanization, or will it stymie India’s growth? Urbanization: Trends and Patterns2 • 286 million people in India live in urban areas (around 28% of the population)* • The proportion of urban population in India is increasing consistently over the years From 11% in 1901 to 26% in 1991 and 28% in 2001 • Estimated to increase to 357 million in 2011 and to 432 million in 2021* • After independence • 3 times growth - Total population • 5 times growth - Urban population* * Census of India 2001 16 INDIA: URBAN GEOGRAPHY • In 2003, India was one of the least urbanized of the large in population countries of the world, given that only 28 percent of the country's population resided in urban areas. • Although the proportion classified as urban is small, in absolute numbers India had 299,208,000 people residing in urban centers. • Mumbai (formerly Bombay), with 11,914,398 people, is the largest city of India in terms of population. Delhi ranks second with 9,817,439 followed by Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) with 4,580,544. • 11 Indian cities have populations in excess of one million inhabitants. • The largest metropolitan area populations of India are: – Mumbai 16,368,084 – Kolkata 13,216,546 – Delhi 12,791,458 Dharavi is the largest ‘slum’ in Asia Location: Mumbai, India How would they describe Dharavi to tourist? • Dharavi is described as a “slum of hope” • Dharavi is described as a “slum of despair” Demographics in South Asia 70% of South Asians live in rural areas, in villages, yet South Asia has some of the world’s largest cities: •Mumbai- 16 million •Kolkatta- 13 million •Delhi- 13 million •Dhaka- 13 million INDIA: URBAN GEOGRAPHY • Indian urbanization is accelerating, and urban India is today growing more than twice as rapidly as the country's overall population. • Attendant problems include poor sanitation, street dwellers, and riots. • In 1984, riots between Hindu and Moslems in Mumbai left hundreds dead. • Reasons for migration to cities (internal migration): – Loosening of ties between poor peasants and their villages. – Widespread establishment of village men or "caste brothers" who encourage friends and relatives to move to the cities. Reasons for migration to cities: •Higher salaries •Business opportunities •Anonymity and individualism •Rise in caste status •Agricultural modernization (reduces rural incomes and jobs) •Population pressures •Refugees of drought or flooding Migration-causes • Increased family size-limited agricultural property -Land use Pattern -Irrigation facilities • Better income prospects • Better educational facilities • Better “Life style” • Basic amenities – health, transport,water, electricity. • Victims of natural/manmade calamities-Refugees 25 2 Urbanization • • • Many of India’s people live in small or medium-sized towns, which are larger and livelier than rural villages. India’s cities are very densely populated, as evidenced by Mumbai’s population density of 714,000 inhabitants per square mile. Despite the extreme crowding and poverty, cities offer more opportunities for work and education than do rural areas. INDIA: URBAN GEOGRAPHY • Population densities in urban centers are very high. • Kolkata (Calcutta) averages 13,900 persons per sq km (36,000 persons per sq mi) for its entire area of 1036 sq km (400 sq mi). • By comparison, New York City averages 1544 persons per sq km (4,000 persons per sq mi). • In Kolkata (Calcutta), an estimated 200,000 residents are known as street people and sleep under bridges, railway overpasses, in doorways or wherever they can find a spot. • Slightly better off are the residents of the bustees, hovels made of cardboard, burlap, or other scrap material. • An estimated 2,000,000 people live in bustees. • INDIA: URBAN GEOGRAPHY Indian urbanization reveals several regional patterns: – The northern heartland, the west (wheat growing area) is more urbanized than the east (where rice forms the main staple crop). – In the west urbanization may be as much as 40%; in the east only about 10% of the population resides in urban centers. • India's larger cities (more than 100,000) are concentrated in three regions: (1) the northern plains from Punjab to the Ganges Delta (2) the Bombay-Ahmadabad area (3) the southern end of the peninsula, which includes Madras and Bangalore • Large cities(more than one million) outside these regions include centrally positioned Nagpur and Hyderabad (capital of Andhra Pradesh). Principal Cities of South Asia Mumbai (Bombay) 11,914,398 Delhi 9,817,439 Karachi 4,901,627 Kolkata (Calcutta) Bangalore 4,580,544 4,292,223 Chennai (Madras) Dhaka Ahmadabad 3,515,361 Hyderabad 3,449,878 4,216,268 3,637,892 Lahore 2,707,215 Poona (Pune) Kanpur Lucknow 2,540,069 2,540,069 2,207,340 Nagpur 2,051,320 Faisalabad 1,104,209 - 2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 10,000,000 12,000,000 14,000,000 Cities of India • • • Mumbai, on India’s west coast, is the country’s busiest port and its financial center, while Chennai and Kolkata are major centers of commerce and shipping on the east coast. New Delhi is the country’s capital and center of government. Varanasi, on the banks of the Ganges, is regarded by Hindus as their holiest city, and devout Hindus hope to visit the city at least once within their lifetime to wash in the sacred Ganges River. Migration-consequences • • • • • • Overcrowding Mushrooming of slums Unemployment Poverty Physical & mental stress Family structure-Nuclear families -Single males 33 Migration-cobweb Slums Migration Illiteracy Unhygienic conditions Overcrowding Unemployment Communicable diseases Stretching of overburdened systems Poverty Crimes Non-Communicable diseases Injuries Stress Life style modification Mental illness 34 A scene which makes every Indian feel shameful… 35 Slums of India • In the last decades, the total urban population in India’s 3 largest metropolitan areas has increased to nearly 400 million people. • In 2011, India’s slum population was estimated to be 90 million. T • his rapid urbanization has brought unique challenges to those calling India’s cities home. • Planning practices left over from Colonial times have created city structures characterized by unequal distribution of public services, especially access to clean water and sanitary waste disposal. • Government agencies, as well as Non-Governmental Organizations, are working to provide access to clean water and sanitation for India’s slum dwellers through crisis intervention, infrastructure construction, and education on water quality 1,2 Slums • Under section 3 of the Slum Area and Improvement Act (Improvement and Clearance Act) (Act No.96, 1956) an area is legally considered a slum if competent authority reports that any areas are: • a)In any respect unfit for human habitation; • or b) are by reason of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangement and design of such buildings, narrowness or faulty arrangement of streets, lack of ventilation, light, sanitation facilities or any combination of these factors which are detrimental to safety, health and morals • More males than females • Vast majority is part of the working age group (15-59) • Caste System continues to play defining role Factors Affecting Health in Slums* • Economic conditions • Social conditions • Living environment • Access and use of public health care services • Hidden/Unlisted slums • Rapid mobility * Agarwal S, Satyavada A, Kaushik S, Kumar R. Urbanization, Urban Poverty and Health of the Urban Poor: Status, Challenges and the Way Forward. Demography India. 2007; 36(1): 121-134 38 Double Burden of Diseases • Overcrowding and related health issues • Rapid growth of urban centers has led to substandard housing on marginal land and overcrowding • Outbreaks of diseases transmitted through respiratory and faeco-oral route due to increased population density • It exacerbates health risks related to insufficient and poor water supply and poor sanitation systems • Lack of privacy leading to depression, anxiety, 39 stress etc Double Burden of Diseases • Upsurge of Non-communicable diseases • The rising trends of non-communicable diseases are a consequence of the demographic and dietary transition • Decreases in activity combined with access to processed food high in calories and low in nutrition have played a key role • Urbanization is an example of social change that has a remarkable effect on diet in the developing world 40 Double Burden of Diseases • Traditional staples are often more expensive in urban areas than in rural areas, whereas processed foods are less expensive • This favors the consumption of new processed foods • This places the urban population at increased risk of NCDs • In India, chronic diseases are estimated to account for 53% of all deaths and 44% of disability-adjusted lifeyears (DALYs) lost in 2005 41 • Large segment of urban poor • In migration and floating populations • Diverse social and cultural backgrounds • Greater vulnerability of the migrating populations • Inequitable distribution of health facilities • Multiple agencies/bodies providing health care • Lack of Standardization and standard treatment protocols • Lack of integrated HMIS and databases Socio Demographic Operational KEY CHALLENGES TO URBAN HEALTH SERVICES Administrative • Various administrative units with little coordination. • Districts and zones not clear • Lack of grass root level structures like PRI’s Dual burden of diseases • Increased burden of diseases associated with overcrowding, poor sanitation and hygiene • Diseases associated with air and water pollution • Lifestyle and stress related diseases, accidents/violence, substance abuse 42 • Diseases of nutrition Operational Challenges • Lack of standards for – Provision of safe water and sanitation facilities – Housing and waste disposal systems • No public health bill for setting up and regulating these standards • Lack of understanding of recent demands of urban health care delivery and poor planning/implementation 43 Operational Challenges • Lack of infrastructure for setting up of primary health care facilities • Many slums are not having even a single primary health care facility in their vicinity • Multiple health care facilities/bodies but without coordination • Lack of community level organizations/slum level organizations and lack of adequate support to them 44 Infrastructure Issues Disparate Taxation • Only 35 million people pay income tax to the federal government. –Formal Sector • Over 1 billion pay NO federal taxes! –Informal Sector –Largely agricultural or village based Lacking Infrastructure • Major cities are not connected at this point by a highway system. • Golden Quadrilateral Highway Project will eventually connect New Delhi-MumbaiBangalore-Chennai-Kolkata. - $12 billion • Currently only 3,700 miles of highways!!! • 40% of farm produce goes to waste as a result of poor transportation Infrastructure Issues • Irrigation & Water Pollution – Narmada Valley Project –Building of 30 major & 3,000 minor dams –Electric power will be created • Bhopal Accident – American chemical plant accident, killed 2,000 • Modernizing vs. Environmental Protection Scheduled Improvements • New $430 million Bangalore International Airport to be completed by April 2008. (European built and operated) – Roads to the airport are uncertain • Vallapardam Ship Terminal in Kochi (southwest coast of Kerala) to be completed by Dubai’s DP World at a cost of $555 million Population Issues How To Handle Them INDIA: POPULATION GEOGRAPHY • India had 1,068,600,000 people in 2003 (17% of the world total), the world's second largest country in population after China. • India has a rate of natural increase of 1.7% (compared to a 1.3% world rate) and a projected population of 1,363,000,000 by 2025. • At this rate, it is only a matter of time before India becomes the world's most populous country. • The largest clusters of the Indian population are found in the Gangetic plains in the north and the coastal areas of the country. These are the most fertile parts of India. 5 South Asia is one of the most densely populated areas on earth. India has a population growth rate of 1.6 percent, which will lead to the doubling of the nation’s population in 36 years. INDIA: POPULATION GEOGRAPHY • In India, population arithmetic density (in 2003) was 325 persons per sq km (842 persons per sq mi); physiological density (in 2000) was at 557 persons per square kilometer (1442 persons per square mile). • In neighboring Bangladesh the arithmetic density is approximately 2.5 times as high, 1,040 persons per sq km (2,639 persons per sq mi). More than one-third of India’s population is under the age of 15 years old. India’s natural increase rate: 1.5% (2009 est) China’s natural increase rate: 0.6% India’s population is expected to exceed China’s by 2020. Each year India adds 18 million people. To accommodate this, each year India would have to add: •127,000 new village schools •373,000 new teachers (at 50 students per teacher) •2.5 million new homes (with 7 people per home) •4 million new jobs •180 million new bushels of grain and vegetables CASE STUDY: Slowing Population Growth in India • For over 50 years, India has tried to control its population growth with only modest success. • Two factors help account for larger families in India. – Most poor couples believe they need several children to work and care for them in old age. – The strong cultural preference for male children means that some couples keep having children until they produce one or more boys. • The result: even though 9/10 Indian couples have access to at least one modern birth control method, only 48% actually use one. Family Planning as National Policy • In 1952, the Indian government adopted family planning as a national policy. – By 1961, there were 4,165 family planning clinics. – As a part of the government campaign to limit the number of children, the government has put up billboards with the following slogan: "four is a family, five is a crowd." • In 1976, a national population policy was adopted including: – the increase of the age of marriage for females to 18 years and for males to 21, – tying financial grants from the federal government to the state governments to their performance in limiting births, – provision of sex education in schools, – expansion of compensation for voluntary sterilization, – and use of incentives by governments to encourage people to limit their family size. • In 1977, this policy was made voluntary following the collapse of the Indira Gandhi government. Only 8% of federal assistance was tied to performance on birth control by states. South Asia has been trying to reduce births since 1952. India began its population programs in 1952. mid-1960s: they opened camps for mass insertions of IUDs. 1970s: “Vasectomy camps” 10 million men were coerced into sterilized by vasectomies during the “Emergency Drive” for family planning in the 1970s. Backlash against family planning and distrust of gov’t 1998: the Indian government abandoned targets for sterilizations and contraception. Focus on education. Family planning poster from India “Why only a boy?” family planning poster from India How is it that population continues to boom even with declines in fertility? •Significant part of population is in early reproductive years •Poor, rural, uneducated people see children as their only source of wealth. •Because there is little access to healthcare, infant mortality rates are high (67/1,000 live births). •View sons as more beneficial than daughters. Pollution Issues Pollution “All the ills of urban development exist in this one city, [New Delhi].” “The environmental problems of developing countries are not the side effects of excessive industrialization but reflect the inadequacy of development” (Gandhi) Indira Gandhi 1968: UN pollution conference QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Double Burden of Diseases • Air pollution and its consequences • Due to increase in the numbers of motorized vehicles and industries in the cities of the developing world • Problems of noise and air pollution • Air pollution can affect our health in many ways with both short-term and long-term effects • Short-term air pollution can aggravate medical conditions like asthma and emphysema • Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to other vital organs 65 Indoor Air Pollution Fuel wood, animal dung and crop residues = fuel (Smith 2000). Arsenic & other toxins 560 villages arsenic-affected More than a million people are drinking arsenic contaminated water 200,000 people are suffer from arsenic-related diseases Result: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory infections. – Most common COD for children under 5 in India (WHO) – Low birth weight, increased infant and prenatal mortality, pulmonary tuberculosis, nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, cataract, and, specifically in respect of the use of coal, with lung cancer and asthma. Waste Disposal Land scarcity for dumping sites Burning: Most common = CFC emissions Recycling difficult to implement Increase in MSW (municipal solid waste) Rapid population growth Modernization Mumbai population grew from 8.2 million in 1981 to 12.3 million in 1991 MSW 3200 tons per day to 5 355 tons per day Municipality competition Access sanitation • Only 33% can get rid of there garbage others can’t. • So that leaves them with nasty garbage to live with. • So they have to find a way to get rid of all that garbage. This is what has happened in India Water conservation can help solve this problem The problem in India •India has the world’s second largest population •The population in India is too big. This is part of why India is in a water crisis. •Some of the diseases are being spread because, many people cannot wash their hands correctly with such little water. Disease is also spread through drinking-water. Water India has 86% improved water sources that leaves 14% with dirty water. Water Pollution 3.7 Million depend on basic well system hydrocarbons, phenols, cyanide, pesticides, major inorganic species, and bacteria. Yamuna River can no longer support life Garbage cascades down its banks, giving off a fetid stench. And half of the city's raw sewage flows into its waters. "The river is dead, it just has not been officially cremated" Govt. spending: $500 million River pollution has doubled since 1993 Unplanned Communities 80% pollution due to raw sewage -4% GDP due to lost productivity (Gupta) Technology can improve “nullahs” QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Double Burden of Diseases • Water and sanitation problems • Due to increasing urbanization coupled with existing un-sustainability factors and conventional urban water management • Nealy 1.1 billion people worldwide who do not have access to clean drinking water and 2.6 billion people i.e. over 400 million people, lack even a simple improved latrine • Can lead to increased episodes of diarrhea and economic burden 73 Economic Strength Why is India becoming an economic superpower? Even though the world has just discovered it, the India growth story is not new. It has been going on for 25 years old India Story 1) Rising GDP growth % average annual GDP growth 1900 – 1950 1950 – 1980 1980 – 2002 2002 – 2006 1.0 3.5 6.0 8.0 Sources: 1900-1990: Angus Maddison (1995), Monitoring the World Economy, 1990-2000:Census of India (2001), 2000-2005 Finance Ministry India Story 2) Population growth is slowing % average annual growth 1901 – 1950 1951 – 1980 1981 – 1990 1991 – 2000 2001 – 2010 1.0 2.2 2.1 1.8 1.5 Sources: 1900-1990: Angus Maddison (1995), Monitoring the World Economy, 1990-2000:Census of India (2001) The Population Factor • The world’s 2nd largest country with 1,121,800,000 • Only 1/3 the size of the U.S. • 1.7% natural increase • 2025 – approaching 1.4 billion World’s largest! • Will surpass China by 2032 • 70 million have moved to the cities between 1991-2001 • Growing massive cities such as: Mumbai, New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai India’s demographic advantage means that its high growth will continue longer term while China will slow India has law, China has order -India got democracy before capitalism and this has made all the difference -It will be slower than China but its path will be surer -India more likely to preserve its way of life “By 2010 India will have world’s largest number of English speakers” “When 300 million Indians speak a word in a certain way, that will be the way to speak it.” -Prof. David Crystal, Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language India Story 3. Literacy is rising 1950 1990 2000 2010 (proj) Source: Census of India (2001) % 17 52 65 80 India Story 4. Middle class is exploding % Million People 1980 8 65 2000 22 220 2010 (proj) 32 368 Source: The Consuming Class, National Council of Applied Economic Research, 2002 INDIA WILL GRADUALLY TURN MIDDLE CLASS 1980 2000 2010 2020 2040 % 8 22 32 50 West of the Kanpur-Chennai line 50 East of the Kanpur-Chennai line Growing Middle Class • Over 200 million people falling into a growing middle class of consumers. • Technically defined as those earning between $4000-$21,000 a year. • This actually only accounts for 60 M. • “Middle class-ness” seems to include those going from living on $5 a day to $10. India Story 5. Poverty is declining 1980 2000 2010 (proj) 46% 26% 16% 1% of the people have been crossing poverty line each year for 20 years. Equals ~ 200 million. India Story 6. Productivity is rising 30% to 40% of GDP growth is due to rising productivity India Story 7. Per capita income gains (US$ ppp) 1980 1178 2000 3051 Source: World Bank This means a per capita income roughly of (on a ppp basis): ($) 2000 2005 2020 2040 2066 2100 3050 5800 16,800 37,000 India Story th 4 8. India is now the largest economy And it will cross Japan between 2012 and 2014 to become the 3rd largest Government and the Economy • India is the world’s largest democracy. • India is one of the strongest nations in Asia. • One of India’s largest industries is its moviemaking industry—called Bollywood. • Although India is one of the world’s top five industrial countries, millions of Indians live in poverty. Globalization and India • Thomas Freidman has asserted that globalization has made the world “flat” as evidenced by the growing service sector within India. • This also implies that India is “flat.” • Reality on the ground may differ. DRIVERS OF GROWTH India Domestic Services Consumption High tech, capital intensive industry East and S.E. Asia Exports Manufacturing Investment Low tech, labour intensive industry India’s “mixed economy” The “mix” refers to private and public ownership. Socialism… Foreign aid and foreign investment are crucial (also something Gandhi disagreed with). Urban areas have high-tech companies. Three quarters of the population are farmers living in small villages. Reasons for Success India’s success is market led whereas China’s is state induced. The entrepreneur is at centre of the Indian model “Licence Raj” • Licence Raj, also the Permit Raj refers to the elaborate licenses, regulations and the accompanying red tape that were required to set up and run businesses in India between 1947 and 1990. • The Licence Raj was a result of India's decision to have a planned economy where all aspects of the economy are controlled by the state and licences are given to a select few. • Up to 80 government agencies had to be satisfied before private companies could produce something and, if granted, the government would regulate production. • The social democratic plan is too optimistic for Inidan immature environment. Rise of globally competitive Indian companies: Reliance, Jet Airways, Infosys, Wipro, Ranbaxy, Bharat Forge, Tata Motors, TCS, Bharati, ICICI and HDFC Banks India has a vibrant private space > 100 Indian Companies have market > > > < > cap of US$ 1 billion 1000 Indian Companies have received foreign institutional investment 125 Fortune 500 companies have R&D bases in India 390 Fortune 500 companies have outsourced software development to India. 2% bad loans in Indian banks (vs ~ 20% in China) 80% credit goes to private sector (vs~10% in China) Public space is a problem + + - Dynamic democracy Free, lively media and press Poor governance High subsidies High fiscal deficit Creaky infrastructure Inefficient government companies What explains India’s economic success? 1) Even slow reforms add up-state getting out of the way 2) Young minds are liberated 3) India has found its competitive advantage in the knowledge economy Key Reforms • Opened economy to trade and investment • Dismantled controls • Lowered tariffs • Dropped tax rates • Broke public sector monopolies Agriculture By the Numbers • Per Capita GDP - $3600 • 60% agricultural/ but only 20% of GDP. • 100 million farmers own NO land. • Approximately 80% of all Indians live on the equivalent of less than $2 a day. 2 Agriculture • Farming methods have improved, but few families own enough land to support themselves. • Many farmers have set up cottage industries to add to their income. • India is a leading industrial nation, and advances have been made there in technology and consumer industries. • The growing middle class forms the market for consumer goods. INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY Primary Sector: • Indian agriculture is inefficient and labor intensive. • Animals are frequently used for power. • The village is the focus of life for 74 percent of the Indian population with an estimated 580,000 villages. • Approximately 2/3 of India's huge working population (63 percent) depends directly on the land for its livelihood. • Substantial progress toward modernization has been made in the Punjab's wheat zone. • In the early 1980s more than 1/4 of India's cultivated area was still owned by only 4 percent of the country's farming families. • Half of all rural families either owned as little as a half hectare (1.25 acres) or less, or no land at all. • Land consolidation efforts have had only limited success, except in the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh. INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY • Major crop zones: 1. Wheat. Dry northwest notably in the Punjab and neighboring areas of the Upper Ganges. Many gains from the Green Revolution through the introduction of high-yielding varieties developed in Mexico. Rice. Moist east and a summer monsoon drenched south. More than 1/4 of all of India's farmland lies under rice cultivation, most of it in the states of Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, and eastern Uttar Pradesh. This area has more than 100 cm (40 inches) of rainfall. India has the largest acreage of rice among the world's countries. Yields per hectare are still low at below 1,000 kg (900 lbs./acre), however. Coconut. Malabar Coast. (Kerala) Millet. Southwestern India. A cereal grass, Setaria italica, extensively cultivated in the East and in southern Europe for its small seed or grain, used as food for man and fowls, but in the U.S. grown chiefly for fodder. Groundnut. Kathiawar Peninsula. Cotton. West-Central India (Deccan Plateau). Chick Peas. Northwest. Plantation. Northeast. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY • Livestock: • India has more livestock than any other country in the world. – – – – Cows - 200,000,000 water buffalo - 60,000,000 Goats and sheep - 60,000,000 Horses, donkeys, and elephants - 5,000,000 • Sheep are of major importance in the drier west where the Islamic population is clustered. • Water buffalo is dominant in the Ganges Delta and coastal regions. • Cattle (particularly the Brahman or Zebu breeds) are found throughout India. INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY • Cattle are an integral element of the Indian agricultural economy. – They are the primary source of draft power (plowing, pulling carts, grinding grain, and a host of other tasks). – Cattle graze on forage which would otherwise be wasted during a dry season. – Cattle consume secondary agriculture byproducts (straw, rice husks, and corn stalks). – Cattle produce an estimated 771,000,000 metric tons (850,000,000 tons) of cow dung, the principle source of domestic fuel a year. – Dung is also mixed with mud and used for plaster; also a major source of fertilizer. – Cattle also produce most of India's milk (the bulk of which comes from the water buffalo). – When a cow dies, it is consumed by the untouchables (who have no prohibitions about consuming beef when it is available) of the large Hindu population. – Cow hides are a major source of leather. – The maintenance of the large numbers of cows and buffalo is a completely rational activity in the Indian agricultural economy. India’s “Green Revolution” Introducing higheryielding varieties of seeds in 1965. Increased use of fertilizers & irrigation. GOAL make India self-sufficient in food grains. India's "Green Revolution" allowed RICH farmers to triple their crop by using modern science and technology. INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY • Green Revolution describes the development of extremely highyielding grain crops that allow major increases in food production, particularly in subtropical areas. • In 1953, scientists developed rust-resistant dwarf wheats which doubled Mexico's per acre production in the next decade. • After a major drought in India in 1965, Mexican dwarf wheat was widely planted in the Punjab region, producing dramatic increases in wheat yields. • The improved rice (IR)- IR-8 was spotted in 1965 at the Los BaZos research institute in the Philippines, which was set up using aid from the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations. • Its first harvest, from 60 trial tons of seeds, produced a six-fold increase of rice under field conditions. • About 10% of India's paddy land is now planted with IR-8 varieties. INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY • Green Revolution benefits: – Two to four times the yield of indigenous grains. – A shortened growing season allows two crops per year. – “Miracle grains" have a wider tolerance for climatic variations. • Green Revolution problems – Need for high application of fertilizer and insecticide, and in the case of rice, there is a need for copious irrigation. – "Miracle grains" have been adopted in the most prosperous areas and among the most prosperous farmers. As a result, interregional and social gaps have widened. – Traditional marketing patterns have been upset. Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) have found their traditional markets disappearing, and Japan now looks for exports. Industries INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY • Secondary sector: • At the time of independence (1947), Indian industries emphasized textiles and food processing. • Gandhi championed development of the cottage industries that existed prior to the intervention of Britain. – A cottage industry involves small scale production using high labor inputs. – Cottage industries are very important because they are labor intensive. – They employ 40 individuals for every one employed in a large automated factory producing the same products. – A total of 750 products is produced by small industries which use <=$100,000 in capital. (Receivers, tools, plumbing fittings, etc.). • Manufacturing employs only 13% of the labor force. INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY Manufacturing Regions: 1. Kolkata (Calcutta) and Jamshedpur form an emerging industrial region in northeastern India. – – – Calcutta forms the center of the Bihar-Bengal area where jute manufacturing dominates, but engineering, chemical and cotton industries also exist. Jute: a strong, coarse fiber used for making burlap, gunny, and cordage; it is obtained from two East Indian plants-Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius of the linden family. The Jamshedpur region 240 km (150 mi) west of Calcutta has the Tata Steel Works, India’s single largest steel making complex (Indian Ruhr). In the nearby Chota-Nagpur district, coal mining and iron and steel manufactures have developed, and Bhilai is a growing nucleus of heavy industry. INDIA: ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY Manufacturing Regions: 2. Western Zone-Mumbai (Bombay)-Ahmadabad: This Maharashtra, Gujarat area specializes in cotton and chemicals with some engineering and food processing, automobiles, and petrochemicals. 3. Southeastern Zone- Chennai (Madras): specializing in textiles. 4. Bangalore supports diversified electrical manufacturing, machine tools, the construction industry, and food processing. Technology India’s Economy Today • 60% of people work in agriculture • 28% of people work in new service industries • New Technology has helped expand the economy • Important Industries –Textiles, chemicals, steel, software, mining India: Technology Superpower 15 of the world's major Automobile makers are obtaining components from Indian companies. Texas Instruments was the first to open operations in Bangalore, followed by Motorola, Intel, Cadence Design Systems and several others. This business fetched India $1.5 Billion in 2003, and will reach $15 Billion by 2007. New emerging industries areas include, BioInformatics, Bio-Technology, Genomics, Clinical Research and Trials. 80 of the World’s 117 SEI CMM Level-5 companies are based in India. 5 Indian companies recently received the globally acclaimed Deming prize. This prize is given to an organization for rigorous total quality management (TQM) practices. World-renowned TQM expert Yasutoshi Washio predicts that Indian manufacturing quality will overtake that of Japan in 2013. McKinsey believes India's revenues from the IT industry will reach $87 Billion by 2008. Flextronics, the $14 billion global major in Electronic Manufacturing Services, has announced that it will make India a global competence centre for telecom software development. Geneva-based STMicroelectronics is one of the largest semiconductor companies to develop integrated circuits and software in India. India: Technology Superpower Over 100 MNCs have set up R&D facilities in India in the past five years. These include GE, Bell Labs, Du Pont, Daimler Chrysler, Eli Lilly, Intel, Monsanto, Texas Instruments, Caterpillar, Cummins, GM, Microsoft and IBM. India’s telecom infrastructure between Chennai, Mumbai and Singapore, provides the largest bandwidth capacity in the world, with well over 8.5 Terabits (8.5Tbs) per second. With more than 250 universities, 1,500 research institutions and 10,428 higher-education institutes, India produces 200,000 engineering graduates and another 300,000 technically trained graduates every year. (note: per capita numbers are lower in comparison with first world, Russia and Israel, indicating India should increase the number of educational institutions and educational opportunities to its 1.3 billion population) Besides, another 2 million graduate in other areas in India annually. The Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) is among the top three universities from which McKinsey & Company, the world's biggest consulting firm, hires most. Information Technology’s Impact • India produces about 100,000 new engineers a year. About 3 times the number of the U.S. • But still only 1.6 million people are employed in IT and Service Center jobs. • Key centers include Bangalore, New Delhi, Gurgaon, and Hyderabad. U.S. companies in India IT Services-design, support, and or production • Adobe, Cisco Systems, Dell, Google, Hewlett-Packard, General Motors, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Motorola, Texas Instruments, Yahoo India: Trade Tata Motors paid $ 118 million to buy Daewoo commercial vehicle Company of Korea. Ranbaxy, the largest Indian pharmaceutical company, gets 70% of its $1 billion revenue from overseas operations and 40% from USA. Tata Tea has bought Tetley of UK for £260M. India is one of the world's largest diamond cutting and polishing centres, its exports were worth $6 Billion in 1999. About 9 out of 10 diamond stones sold anywhere in the world, pass through India. Garment exports are expected to increase from the current level of $6 billion to $25 billion by 2010. The country's foreign exchange reserves stand at an all-time high of $120 Billion. India's trade with China grew by by 104% in 2002 and in the first 5 months of 2003, India has amassed a surplus in trade close to $0.5M. Mobile phones are growing by about 1.5Million a month. Long distance rates are down by twothirds in five years and by 80% for data transmission. Wal-Mart sources $1 Billion worth of goods from India - half its apparel. Wal-Mart expects this to increase to $10 Billion in the next couple of years. GAP sources about $600 million and Hilfiger $100 million worth of apparel from India. India: Self-Reliance India is among six countries that launch satellites and do so even for Germany, Belgium, South Korea, Singapore and EU countries. India's INSAT is among the world's largest domestic satellite communication systems. India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) was indigenously manufactured with most of the components like motor cases, inter-stages, heat shield, cryogenic engine, electronic modules all manufactured by public and private Indian industry. Kalpana Chawla was one of the seven astronauts in the Columbia space shuttle when it disintegrated over Texas skies just 16 minutesbefore its scheduled landing on Feb 1st 2003, she was the second Indian in space. Back in 1968, India imported 9M tonnes of food-grains to support its people, through a grand programme of national self-sufficiency which started in 1971, today, it now has a food grain surplus stock of 60M. India is among the 3 countries in the World that have built Supercomputers on their own. The other two countries being USA and Japan. India built its own Supercomputer after the USA denied India purchasing a Cray computer back in 1987. India’s new ‘PARAM Padma’ Terascale Supercomputer (1 Trillion processes per sec.) is also amongst only 4 nations in the world to have this capability. India is providing aid to 11 countries, writingoff their debt and loaning the IMF $300M. It has also prepaid $3Billion owed to the World Bank and Asian Development Bank. India: Pharmaceuticals The Indian pharmaceutical industry at $6.5 billion and growing at 8-10% annually, is the 4th largest pharmaceutical industry in the world, and is expected to be worth $12 billion by 2008. Its exports are over $2 billion. India is among the top five bulk drug makers and at home, the local industry has edged out the Multi-National companies whose share of 75% in the market is down to 35%. Trade of medicinal plants has crossed $900M already. There are 170 biotechnology companies in India, involved in the development and manufacture of genomic drugs, whose business is growing exponentially. Sequencing genes and delivering genomic information for big Pharmaceutical companies is the next boom industry in India. India: Foreign Multi-National Companies Top 5 American employers in India: General Electric: Hewlett-Packard IBM American Express Dell : 17,800 employees : 11,000 employees : 6,000 employees : 4,000 employees : 3,800 employees General Electric (GE) with $80 Million invested in India employs 16,000 staff, 1,600 R&D staff who are qualified with PhD’s and Master’s degrees. The number of patents filed in USA by the Indian entities of some of the MNCs (upto September, 2002) are as follows: Texas Instruments - 225, Intel - 125, Cisco Systems - 120, IBM - 120, Phillips 102, GE - 95. Staff at the offices of Intel (India) has gone up from 10 to 1,000 in 4 years, and will reach 2000 staff by 2006. GE's R&D centre in Bangalore is the company's largest research outfit outside the United States. The centre also devotes 20% of its resources on 5 to 10 year fundamental research in areas such as nanotechnology, hydrogen energy, photonics, and advanced propulsion. It is estimated that there are 150,000 IT professionals in Bangalore as against 120,000 in Silicon Valley. Top 5 American employers in India: General Electric: Hewlett-Packard IBM American Express Dell : 17,800 employees : 11,000 employees : 6,000 employees : 4,000 employees : 3,800 employees General Electric (GE) with $80 Million invested in India employs 16,000 staff, 1,600 R&D staff who are qualified with PhD’s and Master’s degrees. The number of patents filed in USA by the Indian entities of some of the MNCs (upto September, 2002) are as follows: Texas Instruments - 225, Intel - 125, Cisco Systems - 120, IBM 120, Phillips - 102, GE - 95. Staff at the offices of Intel (India) has gone up from 10 to 1,000 in 4 years, and will reach 2000 staff by 2006. GE's R&D centre in Bangalore is the company's largest research outfit outside the United States. The centre also devotes 20% of its resources on 5 to 10 year fundamental research in areas such as nanotechnology, hydrogen energy, photonics, and advanced propulsion. It is estimated that there are 150,000 IT professionals in Bangalore as against 120,000 in Silicon Valley. William H. Gates, Chairman and Chief Software Architect Microsoft Corporation (b-1955): Gates emphasized that India had emerged as a major global IT hub not because of the availability of low-cost skills, as many believe. Rather, it had more to do with the ''quality'' and ''worldclass skills'' to be found in India, he said. ''The key is the quality of the human talent here. When people do software projects in India, they do so because this is the place they can find people with the latest skills. It is not on the (cheap) price (of labor),'' he was quoted as saying by The Times of India newspaper. Gates had high praise for the ''quality of educational institutions which could make India into an IT superpower.'’ September 19, 2000. http://www.atimes.com/ind-pak/BI19Df01.html .” Goldman Sachs Report of 1 October, 2003 – "Dreaming with BRICs: The path to 2050" India's GDP will reach $ 1 trillion by 2011, $ 2 trillion by 2020, $ 3 trillion by 2025, $ 6 trillion by 2032, $ 10 trillion by 2038, and $ 27 trillion by 2050, becoming the 3rd largest economy after USA and China. In terms of GDP estimates, the continental India (1.3 billion, with $ 0.5 trillion in 2000) will overtake Italy (60 million, $ 1.2 trillion in 2000) by the year 2016, France (60 million, $ 1.4 trillion in 2000) by 2019, UK (60 million, $1.5 trillion) by 2022, Germany (85 million, $ 2.0 trillion in 2000) by 2023, and Japan (130 million, $3.9 trillion in 2000) by 2032. Indians abroad A snapshot of Indians at the helm of leading Global businesses The Co-founder of Sun Microsystems (Vinod Khosla), Creator of Pentium Chip (Vinod Dahm), Founder and creator of Hotmail (Sabeer Bhatia), Chief Executive of McKinsey & Co. (Rajat Gupta) President and CFO of Pepsi Cola (Indra Nooyi) President of United Airlines (Rono Dutta) GM of Hewlett Packard (Rajiv Gupta) President and CEO of US Airways (Rakesh Gangwal) Chief Executive of CitiBank (Victor Menezes), Chief Executives of Standard Chartered Bank (Rana Talwar) Chief Executive officer of Vodafone (Arun Sarin) President of AT & T-Bell Labs (Arun Netravali) Vice-Chairman and founder of Juniper Networks (Pradeep Sindhu) Founder of Bose Audio (Amar Bose) Founder, chip designer Cirrus Logic (Suhas Patil ) Chairman and CEO of Computer Associates (Sanjay Kumar) Head of (HPC WorldWide) of Unilever Plc. (Keki Dadiseth) Chief Executive Officer of HSBC (Aman Mehta) Director and member of Executive Board of Goldman Sachs (Girish Reddy) Chief Economist of the International Monetary Fund (Raghuram Rajan) Former CTO of Novell Networks (Kanwal Rekhi) “Brain Drain” • Young talent leaving India seems to be slowing down. • Average starting salary for an IT engineer in India today is approximately $10-12,000. • Many are graduates of the Indian Institute of Technology – Several campuses located throughout the country • This salary provides a comfortable lifestyle in modern India for the privileged few. Indians in the USA. Statistics that show: 38% of 12% of 36% of 34% of 28% of 17% of 13% of doctors in the USA, scientists in the USA, NASA scientists, Microsoft employees, IBM employees, INTEL scientists, XEROX employees, … are Indians. Of the 1.5M Indians living in the USA, 1/5th of them live in the Silicon Valley. 35% of Silicon Valley start-ups are by Indians. Indian students are the largest in number among foreign students in USA. US H1-B Visa applicants country of origin 1. India 44% 2. China 9% 3. Britain 5% 4. Philippines 3% 5. Canada 3% 6. Taiwan 2% 7. Japan 2% 8. Germany 2% 9. Pakistan 2% 10. France 2% “IIT = Harvard + MIT + Princeton” “IIT = Harvard + MIT + Princeton” , says CBS ‘60 Minutes’. CBS' highly-regarded ‘60 Minutes’, the most widely watched news programme in the US, told its audience of more than 10 Million viewers that “IIT may be the most important university you've never heard of." "The United States imports oil from Saudi Arabia, cars from Japan, TVs from Korea and Whiskey from Scotland. So what do we import from India? We import people, really smart people," co-host Leslie Stahl began while introducing the segment on IIT. “…the smartest, the most successful, most influential Indians who've migrated to the US seem to share a common credential: They are graduates of the IIT.” “…in science and technology, IIT undergraduates leave their American counterparts in the dust.” “Think about that for a minute: A kid from India using an Ivy League university as a safety school. That's how smart these guys are.” There are “cases where students who couldn't get into computer science at IIT, they have gotten scholarships at MIT, at Princeton, at Caltech.” Religious Conflict Between Hindus and Muslims in India HINDU-MUSLIM TENSIONS • Ayodhya riots • Mumbai riots • 1992-93. Thousands dead. 1992: Hindu mob destroyed the mosque in Ayodhya. Riots followed killing over 2000 people. Hindu fundamentalists want to build a Hindu temple in place of the mosque. Hindu fundamentalism opposes Indian National Congress’s secularism. 1996: Fundamentalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) won the election. But they did not have a majority and had to form a coalition government. The coalition only lasted a month, and the United Front took over. The United Front was a coalition of small leftist parties including the Communists. 1997: BJP came back to power. Atal Bihari Vajpayee became Prime Minister. HINDU NATIONALISM • BJP Party wins national elections in 1998. • Favors confrontation with Pakistan • Develop nuclear weapons program, acccomplish little else. Tamil Nationalism and Militarism Greater Tamil Nadu Tamil separatists want their own nation Tamil Separatism: The “Tamil Tigers” They are called the Tamil Nadu Liberation Front. Tamil Nadu is the name of a state in India The area demanded by the Tamil nationalists includes most of southern India and northern Sri Lanka Tamil Nationalism: Sri Lanka has a majority of Sinhalese and a minority of Tamils. Following independence the Tamils demanded their own nation called Eelam Fighting continued from 1976 to present. Sri Lankan missing in Tamil sea raid March 21, 2001 TRINCOMALEE, Sri Lanka -- Seven sailors were killed when a Sri Lankan navy boat was sunk by Tamil Sea Tigers in an attack . February 2003: Truce signed by both sides. Is the dream gone?