Muscle Endurance All Three groups Taylor, Rachel, and Natalie What is Endurance? Muscular Endurance “The ability of a muscle to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly for a long period of time” Cardiorespiratory Endurance “The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate to high levels of intensity.” -Fit and Well, Page 33 Observations After taking the fitness assessment, we noticed that all our muscle endurance tests (Push-ups, curl-ups, and side bridge) were well below average or in the very poor range. Individual Hypotheses Taylor: Hypothesis: If I work out 3 times a week, focusing specifically on muscular endurance, I will improve my curl-ups from 26 in a minute to 30 per minute, and my push-ups from 3 to 6, and my side bridges from 56 seconds to 1:10 on my right side and 41 seconds to 1:00 on my left side. Individual Hypotheses Rachel: Hypothesis: If I use my group’s FITT principle, I can increase my muscle endurance by the final fitness assessment. If I keep increasing my overload, my body will continue to adapt. I will be at least average in muscle endurance. Individual Hypotheses Natalie: Hypothesis: If I workout 3 times a week, focusing my workouts on my abdominals, lower back muscles, and arm muscles, then I will be able to improve by at least one “fitness level” on each test in the muscle endurance portion of the fitness assessment. Group Goal We made two general group goals: We would all work on increasing our muscle endurance and test into (at least) the average range for each test We would each focus on one test to improve the most on Group FITT Goal Frequency 2- 3 days a week. Intensity Weights should be not too heavy, able to do many repetitions without being to extraneous Time 15-20 repetitions Start with 3 sets, add more as needed Type Lower back extension, Abdominals, Chest Press, Bicep Curl (all machines found in the Fitness Center) Individual Goals We made individual goals and made it a goal to target one of the tests to improve the most on. Rachel Natalie Wants to target curl-ups and increase her abdominal muscles because she likes boxing. Wants to target side bridge because she thinks she might have less back problems. Taylor Wants to target push-ups to because she would like to improve her upper body strength. Data and Results Curl-Ups Number of Curl ups in 1 minute 75 Excellent 68-84 Good 59-67 Average 51-58 Poor 42-50 Very Poor 5/30/12 0-41 65 55 45 35 25 4/9/12 Natalie 4/23/12 Taylor 5/9/12 Rachel 5/23/2012 Date Data and Results Push-Ups 30 Number of Push-Ups 24 18 Good 30-35 Fair 23-29 Poor 17-22 12 6 0 4/9/12 Very Poor 4/23/12 5/9/12 5/23/2012 Date Natalie Taylor Rachel 5/30/12 0-16 Data and Results Side Bridge Right Side 80 80 70 70 Number of Seconds Number of Seconds Side Bridge Left Side 60 50 60 50 40 40 30 4/9/12 30 4/9/12 4/23/12 Natalie 5/9/12 Date 5/23/2012 Taylor Rachel Left Side: 78 seconds Right side: 75 seconds 5/30/12 4/23/12 5/9/12 Date 5/23/2012 Natalie Taylor Rachel 5/30/12 Conclusions Based on the graphs, we can see that we all improved and made it to our goals. Our conclusions based on our hypotheses: Taylor: Rachel: Based on my observations, my final results showed improvements. My push-ups increased from 3 to 30, curl-ups increased from 26-53, and my side bridge increased from 56-78 on the right side and 41-76 on the left side. Although I improved, I still got a “low” rating on push-ups. I did very well on my curl-ups though, which was the area I chose to improve the most on Natalie: I was happy to see major improvements on all the fitness assessments. I am happy that I made it into the “good” or “average” category for each of the three tests. Effects of exercise on Skeletal Muscles Building muscle requires using lower weights and more repetitions You can see better results when bigger muscle and multiple muscle groups are worked When building strength, the body releases anaerobic energy It is important to rest in between sets Adaptions to Exercise When we exhaust our muscles and rest them, we are allowing adaptations to occur in our body. If you live a sedentary lifestyle, slowly start gaining muscle. If you work too hard in the beginning, you can injure yourself Hypertrophy vs. Atrophy Hypertrophy “An increase in the size of muscle fibers, usually stimulated by muscular overload, as occurs during strength training.” Atrophy “A decrease in the size of muscle fibers” Fit and Well, p. 93 Effects of Anabolic Steroids Effects Increased: Strength Power Fat free mass Aggression No effects on endurance Potential Side Effects Liver damage/tumors Decrease in: HDL (good cholesterol) Testosterone / sperm Immune system High blood pressure Breast development in males Heart disease Increased risk of cancer Resistance Training Weight bearing and resistance training strengthen bones which decreases your chances of having osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is the weakening of the bones Since bones protect our organs, it is necessary to have strong bones Some people who do resistance training get chemical changes in their muscles in just two weeks! Overload Overload Principle To continue building muscle you must increase your load using the overload principle. Applying Overload You can achieve muscle mass by doing the same number of repetitions a day progressively increasing weight in your repetitions When you are using powerful movements with weights, slow twitch fibers are being used. Lactic Acid Build-Up Used as an energy source Too much build-up causes fatigue Product of anaerobic respiration Mitochondria in muscle cells use lactic acid for energy production Can cause glycosis Training can help with the body’s production of lactic acid Energy Sources Used during Physical Activity Fats and carbohydrates are used as an energy source Dependent on intensity and duration of exercise Low intensity workouts uses fats High intensity workouts use carbohydrates Carbohydrates produce glycogen Glycogen allows for prolonged exercise Types of Training Anaerobic Occurs in the absence of oxygen Aerobic Dependent on the presence of oxygen High intensity activities Short bursts of energy Lasts up to 2 minutes Moderate or lower intensity activities Uses endurance Lasts for longer periods of time (greater than 2 minutes) Effects of Aging Loss of muscle strength accelerates at 50 30% decrease in muscle strength 40% decrease in muscle mass Muscle fibers decrease in numbers (Atrophy) and the muscle cells decrease in size Elderly people benefit from Muscle endurance training by increasing: VO2 max Muscle hypertrophy Increased strength Works Cited "Effects of Aging - OrthoInfo - AAOS." Effects of Aging - OrthoInfo - AAOS. Web. 06 June 2012. <http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00191>. "The Effects of Aging and Training on Skeletal Muscle." The Effects of Aging and Training on Skeletal Muscle. Web. 06 June 2012. <http://ajs.sagepub.com/content/26/4/598.short>. "Formats." Changes in Skeletal Muscle with Aging: Effects of Exercise Training. Web. 06 June 2012. <http://ukpmc.ac.uk/abstract/MED/8504850/reload=0;jsessionid=1t2aLc6uPzTxQsjm pmdo.0>. "Formats." Effect of Aging on Human Skeletal Muscle and Motor Function. Web. 06 June 2012. <http://ukpmc.ac.uk/abstract/MED/8007802>. "Formats." Metabolism of Substrates: Energy Substrate Metabolism during Exercise and as Modified by Training. Web. 06 June 2012. <http://ukpmc.ac.uk/abstract/MED/3967777>. "Lactic Acid Does More than Cause Fatigue." About.com Sports Medicine. Web. 06 June 2012. <http://sportsmedicine.about.com/cs/exercisephysiology/a/aa053101a.htm>. "Lactic Acid in Exercise Aerobic Respiration." 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ProQuest Research Library. Conis, Elena. "Got a Minute? Fitness that Fits Your Schedule; Short Bursts of Intense Exercise may be just as Effective as Longer Training Sessions." Los Angeles Times: F.8. Los Angeles Times; National Newspapers Core. Jun 13 2005. Web. Fahey, Thomas D., Paul M. Insel, and Walton T. Roth. Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011. Print. The End Questions?