11-21-10 APUSH page 340-355 KTs

Key Terms (page 340-355)
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Opposition to Further Expansion: Many other politicians argued that expanding the United
States would cause more conflict over slavery and therefore threaten the stability of our
Stephen Austin: A young immigrant from Missouri who was the first to establish the first
legal settlement in Texas in 1822
San Jacinto: at the battle of San Jacinto, Santa Anna was captured and held prisoners. The
American soldiers killed most of the Mexican soldiers as revenge for the executions at
Goliad. Under the pressure of the American troops Santa Anna agreed to sign a treaty to
give Texas its independence
Opposition to Annexation: there was a lot of opposition to allowing more land expansion
especially when Texas had an offer to join the Union. This upset mostly the northerners
because they did not want a large slave territory and more southern votes in the electoral
Conflict between settlers and Indians: In the 1840s the population of British settlers and
Indians in Oregon were beginning to become outnumbered by white American settlers
moving westward. The Indians had felt they were a major threat when they had
contracted the measles disease which they thought was from the white Americans and
had no immunity to it
Oregon Trail: about 300,000 migrants between 1840 and 1860 traveled west in the great
overland trails. Usually they gathered in depots in Iowa or Missouri where there were
hired guides to take them to the west. From there they had to travel 2000 miles west
stretching from Independence across the Great Plains and through the South Pass if the
Rocky Mountains. From there, migrants would choose to travel north to Oregon or south
along the California Trail to the northern California coast
Life on the Trail: Life on the trail was different from living at home of course but many
traditional American customs of society were recreated for example gender roles. Men
would drive and when necessary repair wagons or hunt game and women would cook,
clean, wash clothes, and care for children.
James K. Polk: James K. Polk had been in the House of Representatives for fourteen years
and prior to that he was governor. He had won the election because of his position “that
the re-occupation of Oregon and the annexation of Texas at the earliest practicable period
are great American measures.”He had set goals for himself when in office; the first
however had been completed for him by John Tyler
Compromise over Oregon: After Texas had been admitted into the Union Polk offered the
British prime minister in Washington to establish the United States- Canadian border at
the 19th parallel but he did not accept. There was some talk of war from both sides but
nobody wanted war often using the slogan “fifty-four forty or fight” referring to the line
where the Americans had hoped to draw the border. Eventually the British government
accepted Polk’s offer to the original proposal and the senate approved the treaty on June
Texas Boundary in Dispute: The Texans claimed that the western and southern border of
Texas was the Rio Grande which included much of what is today New Mexico but the
Mexicans claimed the border had been the Nueces River which was north of the Rio
Grande. To protect the boundary and Americans in Texas Polk sent a troop under General
Zachary Taylor to prevent possible invasion
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American Interests in California: In California, most of the residents were Indian tribes and
about 7000 Mexicans. Over time more American settlers began to emigrate there, first it
was maritime traders and captains of Pacific whaling ships in need of supplies or to barter.
Next was merchants who established stores and imported merchandise which became a
profitable trade between Mexicans and Indians. Lastly came pioneers farmers that
traveled from the east
Failure of the Slidell Mission: Mexican leaders rejected Slidell’s offer to purchase the
disputed land. As soon as Polk heard the news he had ordered the army he had stationed
at the Texas- Mexico border to move south from the Nueces River to the Rio Grande.
Accounts from a few soldiers say that a group of Mexican soldiers crossed the border and
attacked a unit of American soldiers
Opposition to War: Polk had told Congress that “War exists by the act of Mexico herself”
Congress voted 40 to 2 in the Senate and 174 to 14 in the House. There were many
opponents to the war in the United States because some say Polk deliberately
maneuvered the country into war, others believe that the hostilities between the
Mexicans and Americans are draining resources and attention in the more important
issues in the Pacific Northwest
Bear Flag Revolution: With no opposition Colonel Stephen W. Kearny was able to capture
Santa Fe. He continued on his conquest to California where he encountered a conflict. On
site were American settlers, well armed and led by John C. Fremont and the American
navy: the so called Bear Flag Revolution. Kearny was able to bring the American forces
together and complete his conquest of California by 1846
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: President Polk had become concerned of the upcoming
election so he had sent a presidential envoy, Nicholas Trist, instead. On February 2, 1848
they had reached an agreement. Mexico agreed to cede California and New Mexico to the
United States as well as acknowledge the Rio Grande as the border of Texas. In return the
United States would assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico and
to pay Mexico $15 million
Wilmot Proviso: Representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania introduced an amendment
to the appropriation bill prohibiting slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico. It
passed in the House but not in the Senate so it continuously was called up, debated upon,
and voted on repeatedly for several years. As this happened the Americans assumed they
had equal rights and the right to move “property”
Competing Plans: With all the new land and territories being added to the union the
conflict of free or slave state still existed. Some proposed the idea of extending the
Missouri Compromise line all the way to the Pacific while others felt we should use
“squatter sovereignty” which was formerly known as popular sovereignty. This issue
continued even after the presidential election
Free Soil Party: The Free-Soil party emerged because in the presidential campaign of 1948
Polk was in poor health to run again and the candidates Lewis Cass of Michigan
(Democrats) and General Zachary Taylor of Louisiana (Whigs) were not appealing to them
so they formed their own political party and nominated a different candidate. At the end
of the election although the president was Taylor rather than their candidate, Proviso,
they still were able to elect 10 Free-Soilers into Congress
Forty-Niners: California migrants known as Forty Niners prepared by abandoning jobs,
farms, and families; they boarded ships and flooded the overland trails to travel to the Far
West of California
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Indian Slavery: the Gold Rush had caused a major labor shortage where there were many
opportunities given to people who needed work. Since Indians resembled slaves in all but
name, they were sometimes found by “Indian hunters” who hunted and killed thousands
of Indians. Sometimes they were used as slaves and were assigned to do “indentured”
Sectional Conflict over Slavery in the Territories: The balance of free and slave states in
1849 were equal, fifteen each. However with the addition of California into the Union the
amount of free and slave states would be unbalanced and the same would happen if the
other western states were admitted as well. This led to lots of conflict where the South
had states who mentioned succession and each state in the North except one had come
up with a resolution to demand prohibition of slavery
Clay’s Proposed Solution: Clay had proposed a solution that had many parts. Among the
admission of California as a free state, the formation of the territorial governments in all
the other lands acquired from Mexico without and restrictions on slavery; the prohibition
of slave trade but not on slavery itself in District of Columbia, and a new and more
effective fugitive slave law. These resolutions erupted seven months of debate throughout
the nation and in Congress.
New Leadership: In the place of Henry Clay due to illness, Calhoun due to death, and
Webster due to new appointment as Secretary of State were new leaders William H.
Seward (49) of New York who oppose the compromise and was more concerned with
eliminating slavery than ideals of the Union, Jefferson Davis (42) of Mississippi, and
Stephen A. Douglass (37) who was a Democratic senator from Illinois.
Temporary Compromise: Clay had break up the “omnibus bill” that was passed by Henry
Clay and introduce a series of separate measures to be voted on therefore representatives
could vote for the elements of the bill that they like and those they didn’t.