Manifest Destiny

Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY
Additions M. Lynde Currituck County High School
Barco, NC
Trends in Antebellum America: 1810-1860
New intellectual and religious movements.
2. Social reforms.
3. Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution in America.
4. Re-emergence of a second party system and more
political democratization.
5. Increase in federal power  Marshall Ct. decisions.
6. Increase in American nationalism.
7. Further westward expansion.
“Manifest Destiny”
 First coined by newspaper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845.
".... the right of our manifest destiny to over spread and to possess the whole of the continent which
Providence has given us
for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federative development of self-government
entrusted to us. It is right such as that of the tree to the space of air and the earth suitable for the full
expansion of its principle and destiny of growth."
 A myth of the West as a land of romance and adventure
Progress” by John
Gast, 1872
The Pony Express
 Between April, 1860 and Nov., 1861.
 Delivered news and mail between St.
Louis, MO and San Francisco, CA.
 Took 10 days.
 Replaced by the completion of the
trans-continental telegraph line.
Aroostook “War,” 1839
 The only war ever declared by a state.
 Between the Canadian region of New
Brunswick and the state of Maine.
 Cause: The expulsion of Canadian lumberjacks in the
disputed area of Aroostook by Maine officials.
 Congress called up 50,000 men and voted for
$10,000,000 to pay for the “war.”
 General Winfield Scott arranged a truce, and a
border commission was convened to resolve the issue.
Maine Boundary Settlement, 1842
Expansion in Texas
 9.3
• GTT - Gone to Texas
Land(Real estate deal- original 300)
Mexicans asked for settlers (Tejanos)
Needed to become Catholic
Known as "The Father of Texas," Stephen
F. Austin established the first AngloAmerican colony in the Tejas province of
Mexico and saw it grow into an
independent republic.
His father, Moses Austin, received
approval to settle 300 American families
on 200,000 acres; he died before he could
accomplish this, but his son, Stephen, did
it for him.
Stephen F. Austin
Key Figures in Texas Independence, 1836
Sam Houston
Steven Austin
Sam Houston
took control of the Texas forces
after the fall of the Alamo and
Goliad, and conducted the retreat
of the army to the site of the Battle
of San Jacinto
April 21, 1836, defeated Santa
Anna and secured Texas longsought independence.
elected the first President of the
Republic of Texas
After statehood in 1845, Houston
was elected Senator from Texas to
the Congress of the United States.
Still later, in 1859, Houston was
elected to serve as Governor of the
State of Texas
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Davy Crockett
"You may all go to hell, and I will go to Texas."
--David Crockett to former constituents, 1835
With his death at the Alamo, a
willing sacrifice to Texas’ freedom,
Crockett became a mythic figure
Crockett is the quintessential
frontiersman, the inspiration for
the American image of the
“hunter-hero,” a symbol of the
“Age of Common Man,” a martyr
for the cause of America's
Manifest Destiny and a celebrity
of popular culture
Texas Declaration of Independence
The Republic of Texas
Remember the Alamo!
Battle of the Alamo
Jim Bowie
at the Alamo
Davey Crockett’s Last Stand
The Battle of the Alamo
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Recaptures the Alamo
Despite the win, the 13-day holdout stalled the Mexican Army's progress
and allowed Sam Houston to gather troops and
supplies for his later success at the
Battle of San Jacinto.
The Texian revolutionaries went on to win the war for their independence.
The Year is 1836 and in the
rest of the country….
Overland Immigration to the West
 Between 1840 and
1860, more than
250,000 people
made the trek
Trails Westward
The Oregon Trail – Albert Bierstadt, 1869
During the 1840s the federal government offered land grants to settlers, such as these pioneers, who would make the journey to Oregon. Nearly 900 people followed the Oregon Trail in 1843 and settled in the territory.
During the
1840s the federal government offered land grants to settlers, such as these
pioneers, who would make the journey to Oregon. Nearly 900 people
followed the Oregon Trail in 1843 and settled in the territory.
The Oregon Trail, as it wandered across our
valley and what is now Malheur County, was
not a narrow wagon rut. Taking many different
paths, the wagon trains wandered across the
valley created by the confluence of the Boise,
Owyhee, Payette, Malheur, Weiser and Snake
Rivers. The early pioneers were not impressed
with the Snake River Valley.
"The plains smoked with dust and
death," remarked Thomas Farnham in 1839.
"This is barren, God-forsken country, fit for
nothing but to receive the footprints of the
savage and his universal associate, the coyote."
Most people moving west traveled in covered wagons, which were
large enough for all their belongings as well as the food they needed for
a journey that could take months.
The wagons also provided shelter from the weather.
Teams of oxen or mules pulled the wagons along the dusty trail. People
didn't ride in the wagons often, because they didn't want to wear out
their animals.
Instead they walked alongside them, getting just as dusty as the
The long journey was hard on both people and animals. It was even
hard on the wagons, which usually had to be repaired several times
during the trip
Spanish sailors in search of a northwest passage
were the first Europeans to see what is known today
as Oregon. Settlers traveling in wagon trains over
the Oregon Trail in the 1840s followed the
missionaries who had come in the 1830s.
What animal would pull the
emigrant's covered wagons? That
question was hotly debated among
the Oregon-bound pioneers.
Horses were quickly rejected because
they could not live off prairie grasses
along the way. As a result, most of the
emigrants decided on oxen. They
were strong; could live off grass or
sage; and were less-expensive.
Emigrant Peter Burnett:
"The ox is a most noble animal, patient, thrifty, durable, gentle and
does not run off.Those who come to this country will be in love with
their oxen. The ox will plunge through mud, swim over streams, dive
into thickets and he will eat almost anything."
There was just one problem: oxen were slow--about 2 miles-per-hour.
There was an alternative for those in a hurry--mules. Mules were faster,
and they too could live off prairie grasses. But many believed mules
didn't have quite the staying power of oxen. But perhaps the biggest
problem with mules was their cantankerous disposition.
Emigrant John Clark:
"We had to risk our lives in roping them. After being kicked
across the pen some half-dozen times and run over as often, we
at last succeeded in leading them out. It was laughable."
Emigrant Henry Cook:
"What perverse brutes these mules are. The beasts! How I hate
"The Trail ceased in part to be the
highway of the trapper and became
the highway for the colonist and
fortune-seeker. The Mormons,
after their expulsion from
Illinois, used this trail in the late
1840s to reach the Great Salt
Sante Fe Trail
A 1200-mile trail that was opened in 1821. It began in Independence, Missouri and
extended to Sante Fe, NM, Mexico
For more than 60 years it carried adventurous traders across five states. The trail played
a great role in the westward expansion of the United States.
Between present-day Larned and Dodge City were two routes:
The Dry Route, which followed the ridges and higher ground
The Wet Route which lay along the bottom lands near the Arkansas River.
West of Dodge City the trail divided again.
It was divided between the Cimarron Route that crossed the river many times
through Dodge City and the Lakin vicinity, and also divided by the Mountain Route
which followed the north bank of Arkansas.
All over Kansas there many historic sites and preserved remnants along the trail. There
are famous stopping points, wagon ruts, and unique landmarks
The Doomed Donner Party
April, 1846 – April, 1847
The Doomed Donner Party
James Reed & Wife
 Of the 83 members of the
Donner Party, only 45 survived
to get to California!
The Oregon Dispute: 54’ 40º or Fight!
 By the mid-1840s,
“Oregon Fever” was
spurred on by the
promise of free land.
 The joint British-U. S.
occupation ended in
The Bear Flag Republic
The Revolt  June 14, 1845
John C. Frémont
Pay Attention Now!
 Fill in the blanks:
The fall of Quebec and Montreal (1760) were
in a broad sense, the opening battles of the
________________ War because….
Likewise, in a broad sense, the opening shots of the
Mexican War were the opening shots of the ________
War because….
The Impact of the Mexican War
Increase American territory by 1/3
 Sharp stimulus for sense of Manifest Destiny
 Schoolroom of the Civil War
Marine corps
Mexican-American animosity
 Aroused the issue of slavery
 Emerson said, “Mexico will poison us,” and Calhoun said,
“Mexico is to us the forbidden fruit.” WHAT DO THEY MEAN?
The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845
 Mexican recognition of the Rio
Grande River as the TX-US border.
 US would forgive American citizens’claims
against the Mexican govt.
 US would purchase the New Mexico
area for $5,000,000.
 US would California at any price.
John Slidell
Wilmot Proviso, 1846
Provided, territory from that, as an
express and fundamental condition to
the acquisition of any the Republic of
Mexico by the United States, by virtue
of any treaty which may be negotiated
between them, and to the use by the
Executive of the moneys herein
appropriated, neither slavery nor
involuntary servitude shall ever exist
in any part of said territory, except for
crime, whereof the party shall first be
duly convicted.
Congr. David Wilmot
The Mexican War (1846-1848)
General Zachary Taylor at Palo Alto
“Old Rough and Ready”
The Bombardment of Vera Cruz
General Scott Enters Mexico City
“Old Fuss and Feathers”
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848
Nicholas Trist,
American Negotiator
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848
The Treaty was basically forced on Mexico!
 Mexico gave up claims to Texas above the Rio Grande
 Mexico gave the U. S. California and New Mexico.
 U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 and agreed to pay the
claims of American citizens against Mexico
(over $3,500,000).
Results of the Mexican War?
The 17-month war cost $100,000,000 and 13,000+
American lives (mostly of disease).
New territories were brought into the Union which forced the explosive
issue of SLAVERY to the center of national politics.
* Brought in 1 million sq. mi. of land (incl. TX)
These new territories would upset the balance of power between North
and South.
Created two popular Whig generals who ran for President.
Manifest Destiny partially realized.
Free Soil Party
Free Soil!
Free Speech!
Free Labor!
Free Men!
 “Barnburners” – discontented northern Democrats.
 Anti-slave members of the Liberty and Whig Parties.
 Opposition to the extension of slavery in the new
The 1848 Presidential Election Results
The Mexican Cession
GOLD! At Sutter’s Mill, 1848
John A. Sutter
California Gold Rush, 1849
Two Views of San Francisco, Early 1850s
 By 1860, almost 300,000
people had traveled the
Oregon & California
Trails to the Pacific
Territorial Growth to 1853
Westward the Course of Empire
Emmanuel Leutze, 1860
Expansionist Young America in the 1850s
America’s Attempted Raids into Latin America