# STAAR review power point - Mrs. Robinson 8W Science

```Science Mock Exam Review
2012-2013
Work = Force x Distance
1)
Amy uses 20N of force to push a lawn mower 10 meters. How much
work does she do?
2)
How much work does an elephant do while moving a circus wagon 20
meters with a pulling force of 200N?
3)
A 900N mountain climber scales a 100m cliff. How much work is done
by the mountain climber?
4) Shawn uses 45N of force to stop the cart 1 meter from running his foot
over. How much work does he do?
Evolution - Natural Selection
A group of early giraffes lives in a lush forest with many
trees and shrubs of different heights to feed on. These
giraffes have necks of various lengths, with most giraffes
having a medium length neck. Then a blight passed
through the area, killing off all of the low growing plants,
leaving only tall trees whose leaves are far off the
ground. Giraffes with shorter necks now have a hard
time getting food, while those with longer necks can feed
on the high-growing leaves. After several generations,
the giraffes in this area all have longer necks than those
before the blight. According to the theory of natural
selection, how did this happen?
Periodic Table Organization
Scandium (Sc), Titanium (Ti), and Vanadium
(V), occupy the same period on the periodic
table. These elements all contain the same
number
of
_____________
whereas
Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), and Rubidium
(Rb)
have
the
same
number
of
____________.
Outer Level Electron Stability
Which one of the following elements listed below
has the most stable outer level electron
configuration (# of valence electrons)?
A. Mg
B. Kr
C. Li
D. He
Electromagnetic Waves
&amp; Wavelengths of Stars
If you were to look at the light wavelength emitted from a
star, you observe that Star A has a long wavelength
(red in color) while Star B has a short wavelength
(blue in color). Knowing what you know regarding the
Doppler effect, create a statement that best describes
the motion of each star?
Weather Fronts
Condensation that produces cloud and precipitation accompanies
the leading edge of most weather fronts because as the frontal
boundaries pass, it causes:
Draw a diagram of both Warm and Cold Fronts
Newton's Second Law
Force = mass x acceleration
Look at the following image. Determine what is occurring when
looking at the forces, masses and acceleration.
•
If the masses for both A and B are the same, then to move the
same distance with the same acceleration, the forces must be:
__________
•
If the mass of A is larger than B, then for them to travel the
same distance, the forces must be:_________.
Balanced &amp; Unbalanced Forces
Four forces are applied to the object below. If no other forces
are applied to the object, what direction will the object move?
A- 4N
D- 3N
B- 9N
C- 4N
Food Webs
According to the image right, if there were less
frogs to eat, which of the statements, below
are true?
A. The number of snakes would ____________
because
B. The number of grasshoppers would __________
because
C. The number of rabbits would _________ because
D. A ___________ in the amount of frogs would have
__________________on the fox population.
Natural Selection
A population of arboreal rodents lives in one species of
pine tree. These pine trees have very evenly spaced
branches of uniform thickness. Rodents that are too
small cannot reach between the branches to move
around in the tree. Rodents that are too big and heavy
break through the branches and fall out of the trees. The
rodent population contains adults of very uniform size.
What type of selection has created this uniform size
distribution in these rodents?
Newton’s First Law of Inertia
Using the graph right,
A. Between what time intervals
is the speed constant?
B. Between what time interval
is the object stationary?
C. Between what time intervals
is the object changing
directions?
Periodic Table and Atomic
Structure
The periodic table is a list of elements consisting of chemically
neutral atoms, organized by increasing atomic number.
Determine how many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in
each of the following elements below:
A. Silicon
B. Neon
C. Magnesium
E. Gold
Based on the graph
right, on which date is
____ going to occur?
A. Waning gibbous
B. Waxing gibbous
C. Waning crescent
D. Waxing crescent
E. The next Full moon
Moon Phases
Law of Inertia
Describe the motion of the
man standing in the aisle if:
A. The bus suddenly accelerated.
B. Slammed on the brakes
C. Turned sharply right
D. Turned sharply left
Plate Tectonics and Convection
Currents
At the mid ocean ridge, describe the motion of
the convection currents. Draw arrows
indicating direction of flow
Density Calculations
A group of students performed a lab where they were given several unknown substances. They
were able to find the mass and the volumes of each. Using the table above, determine the
unknowns used in the lab based on the data given.
A.
Unknown 1: mass = 13.0 g, volume 13.0 mL
B.
Unknown 2: mass = 241.25 g , volume = 12.5 mL
C.
Unknown 3: mass = 34.35 g , volume = 0.0192 mL
D. Unknown 4: mass = 1.36 g , volume = 0.100 mL
Continental Drift
Which one of the following conditions would indicate that the
Theory of Continental Drift is in fact true regarding the
current position of the continents? Why?
A. Fossils of tropical plants are being found in polar regions of Antarctica.
B. Identical Rock deposits containing Basalt are found on two different
continents over 3000 miles away.
C. Diamonds with similar chemical signatures are being mined on the
eastern coasts of South America and Western Africa.
D. Fossils of ancient sea creatures are being found in mountainous regions
due to uplift caused by converging plates.
Earth, Sun, Moon Relationships
and Tidal Movements
Using the image below, indicate at which position of the Earth,
Sun, and moon, would either high or low tides exist. Spring and
Neap tides…Also indicate the moon phases of A-D.
D
C
Earth
B
A
Sun
Movement of Matter, Energy, &amp;
Heat in an Ecosystem
Look at the
diagram left and
describe the
movement of
matter, energy, and
heat within the
ecosystem.
Graph Interpretation
On the graph below, describe the type of speed changes
occurring.
D
I
S
T
A
N
C
E
A
D
B
C
E
TIME
Constant Speed and
Balanced Forces
An object is moving at a constant speed of 20 m/s.
After the first minute, a new force acts upon the
object, pushing the object forward. Estimate the
speed on the table over an 8 minute period if
acceleration is constant.
Start
20
m/s
1 min 2 min 3 min 4 min 5 min 6 min 7 min 8 min
Star
Classification
&amp; HR Diagram
Look at the axis on
the HR Diagram
left. Determine
both the
luminosity and
temperature of
the following
stars:
A. Sirius
B. Pollux
C. Rigel
D. Betelgeuse
For the following
conditions for a species,
determine where on the
population graph they
would occur:
A. Lack of Predation
B. Food resources became
limited.
C. Weather conditions
destroyed habitats Catastrophes
D. More individuals were able
to mate
Populations Within an
Ecosystem
Plate Movements
Using the following diagram, state
which plate movements form:
A. volcanic mountains
B. Folded mountains
C. Trenches
D. Island arcs
E. Rift zones/valleys
F. Mid ocean ridge systems
G. Faults
Weather Maps and Frontal
Boundaries
Look at the weather map above, determine what weather Texas and
North Carolina will experience before and after the fronts pass. Also
state the wind direction behind each front.
Periodic Table Organization
Understanding the reason why elements are arranged on
the periodic table, determine what each set of elements
have in common (be specific):
A. Chlorine, Bromine, Astatine
B. P, S, Al
C. Be, Mg, Ba
Physical vs.. Chemical Changes
Determine which of the following are physical vs..
chemical changes upon heating. State why.
A. Changing from a solid to a liquid
B. Changing from a colorless liquid to a dark solid
C. Changing from a liquid to a gas.
D. Placing a white solid into a clear liquid and gas bubbles form.
E. Mixing two liquids and a white solid forms.
Seasons and the Tilt of the Earth
Looking at the following diagram, using the Northern hemisphere
in your reasoning, determine the reason why we experience 4
distinct seasons on Earth. Identify each solstice and equinox
Looking at the diagram below, describe the mechanism
for sea-floor spreading at divergent (separating)
boundaries.
Speed vs.. Velocity
From the following
information, calculate
the objects speed
(km/minute) and
velocity.
The hiker traveled 13.4 km in
7.54
hours
over
the
mountains with a compass
northwest.
Potential vs.. Kinetic
Energy
Analyze the
following diagram.
Determine the
energy changes at
points A &amp; B and as
she moves from
point A to Point B.
Law of Conservation of
Matter
Determine which of the following equations follow the
law of conservation of mass.
A. 2 CaBr -&gt; 2 Ca + Br2
B. 2 H2 + O2 -&gt; 2 H2O
C. 2MgCl + H2O -&gt; MgO + 2 HCl
D.2LiCl + Ca(OH)2 -&gt; 2LiOH + CaCl2
Food webs and Population
Impact
From the following food web, determine what would
happen to the snakes if coyotes which feed on mice and
frogs were introduced into the system.
Atomic Structure
Create the Bohr model for each of the following elements,
showing all subatomic particles, locations, and charges.
Determine the Lewis dot structures for each.
• Sodium
• O
• Ca
• Neon
• Gallium
• C
• Phosphorus
Reading a Velocity vs.. Time Graph
Determine the distance
traveled between line
segments:
A. A-B
B. B-C
C.C-D
Biotic vs. Abiotic
Factors
Biotic factors also known as living factors (other
organisms, food resources, etc.) and abiotic factors, known
as non-living factors (weather, climate, air, sun, and
water) are in each ecosystem in various amounts.
What would happen concerning biotic and abiotic factors
concerning two species of consumers in the same
ecosystem?
Seasons and the Tilt of the Earth
Looking at the following diagram, using the Northern hemisphere
in your reasoning, label the diagram for winter solstice (Dec 21),
summer solstice (June 21), vernal equinox (March 20) and
autumnal equinox (September 22).
Newton's Third Law
For every action,
there is an equal
and opposite
reaction.
Describe the forces
exerted in the following
image:
Tropic levels
When looking at the
tropic levels and the
energy pyramid at
right, what does it
represent? How much
energy is passed from
one level to the next?
Sexual vs. Asexual
Reproduction
The difference between sexual and asexual reproduction
is that during sexual reproduction, it takes two parents
to make an offspring while in asexual reproduction, it
only takes 1 parent to make an offspring that is
genetically identical.
What is an advantage that organism that reproduce
sexually have over organisms that reproduce asexually?
Newton's Second Law
F=mass x acceleration
A. A boat weighing 545 kg is powered by a motor that puts out a force of
350N. Determine the acceleration of the boat.
B. A man weighing 107.6 kg accelerates at 1.2 m/s/s. determine the
force he is having to generate.
C. The baseball player throws a baseball at 65 m/s/s with a force of
29.25N. Determine the mass of the baseball.
D. A man pulls a box weighing 45kg with a force of 30N against a force
of friction of 8N. Determine the acceleration of the box.
What do all living organisms have
in common?
It doesn't matter the organism, all organisms are made
of ...
Body System Interactions
Body systems interact to carry out many functions in the
human body. From the list below, identify what 2 body
systems work together to perform each function.
A. Carrying oxygen to supply muscles
B. Moving your hand away after touching something hot
C. Sweating due to temperature changes
D. Filtering the blood
Weathering &amp; Erosion
What would happen to the cross-section diagram below
if weathering and erosion continued to transpire over
time upstream?
Chemical Formulas
2 Mg3(PO4)2
A.How many atoms are in the above
compound?
B.How many different elements?
Organic Compounds
Which of the following compounds are organic
compounds?
A. C8H10N4O2
B. H2O
C. CO2
D. C6H12O6
Physical and Chemical
changes in Digestion
Explain the physical and chemical changes
that happen to food when you eat it.
Elements vs.. Compounds
If the definition for compound is a combination of more
than one type of element chemically combined, using
the following shapes (assume each shape a different
element) draw an example of three types of
compounds.
Metals, Nonmetals,
Metalloids
LUSTER
METAL
NONMETAL
METALLOID
CONDUCTIVITY
MALLEABILITY
Energy Transformations
Describe the energy transformations that take place in
the following scenarios:
1. Gasoline in a car to make it run
2. Flashlight battery to light
3. Photosynthesis
4. Eating a cheeseburger
5. Fire burning
The Sun
Describe the Sun in terms of size, brightness or
luminosity, color, and location to Earth compared to
other stars in the universe.
Light Years
Light travels at almost 300, 000 kilometers a second.
This distance is known as a light-second. The distance it
takes light to travel in a minute is known as a lightminute. You can tell what a light-hour is. Which of the
following would be measured in light-years and not in
light-seconds, light-minutes, or light-hours?
A. The time it takes light to travel from the Sun to the
Earth.
B. The time it takes each planet to complete one
revolution.
C. The distance between the Sun and Neptune.
D. The distance from Earth to Polaris.
Topographic Maps
How would this
topographic map change
if weathering were
causing land erosion?
A. The numbers would
be larger.
B. The numbers would
be smaller
C. The numbers would
be reversed
Watershed
1. What is a watershed?
2. How do humans affect the groundwater and surface
water in a watershed?
Biodiversity
1. What is biodiversity?
Imagine a forest with only one species of tree. A disease
specific to that species infects one tree. Because the
trees are all the same, the disease is then spread from
tree to tree killing all of the trees.
2. How could you prevent an entire forest from being
destroyed?
Ecological Succession
1. Describe the steps of ecological succession after a
2. Is this primary or secondary succession?
3. Describe the steps of ecological succession after a
volcanic eruption of lava covers the area.
4. Is this primary or secondary succession?
5. Can ecological succession occur in a pond? If so, how?
Dichotomous Keys
Remember to choose between the two choices based on the
characteristics of the object you are trying to identify. (Basic
example)
Animal and Plant Cells
Complete a VENN Diagram comparing animal and plant
cells organelles.
Cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm,
vacuole, mitochondrion, and chloroplast
Animal
Both
Plant
Ecological Succession
Describe the steps of ecological succession after a
Is this primary or secondary succession?
Describe the steps of ecological succession after a
volcanic eruption of lava covers the area.
Is this primary or secondary succession?
Can ecological succession occur in a pond? If so, how?
Heredity
Inherited traits
are governed in
Genetic Material (DNA)
found in the
Genes
within
Chromosomes
in the
Nucleus
Basic Characteristics of
Organisms
Organisms are classified based on the following
characteristics. Describe each characteristic.
• Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic
• Unicellular or Multicellular
• Autotrophic or Heterotrophic
• Sexual Reproduction or Asexual Reproduction
```