Environmental Biology
for Engineers and Scientists
D.A. Vaccari, P.F. Strom, and J.E. Alleman
© John Wiley & Sons, 2005
Chapter 10 – Microbial Groups
Figure 10-1. Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Figure 10-2. Some of Leeuwenhoek's "Animalcules" from the
"Scurf of the Teeth" - Drawings of Bacterial Shapes. A and B
appear to show rods, with C and D showing the movement of
B; E shows cocci; F rods or filaments; and G a spiral.
From Leeuwenhoek' s letter of 1683
Figure 10-3. Leeuwenhoek's Microscope
Figure 10-4. Portrait of Louis Pasteur
Figure 10-5. Pasteur's Swan-Neck Biological Flasks
Figure 10-6. A 3-Dimensional Surface: Visualizing
prokaryotic species as more stable (valleys), and
hence more likely, combinations of characteristics,
although intermediates may exist
Figure 10-7. Example of a Simplified Dichotomous Key
for Identifying Filamentous Organisms in Activated
Figure 10-8. Rod-Shaped Bacteria: Pseudomonas
Figure 10-9. Cocci: Staphylococcus
Figure 10-10. Spiral-Shaped Bacteria: Rhodospirillum
Figure 10-11. A Filamentous Bacteria Growing with
Floc in an Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment
10-12. Stalked Bacteria Growing on a Filament in
Activated Sludge
Bacterial Cell
Figure 10-13. The Gram Stain Technique. This
modification (one of many) is recommended for
staining of activated sludge mixed liquor
Figure 10-14. Bacterial Cell Wall and Membrane:
a). Gram Positive; b). Gram Negative
Figure 10-15. Staining Approaches
Basic (+) dyes penetrate to cytoplasm
Acid (-) dyes usually do not penetrate
membrane without modification (e.g., esterification)
Differential staining with contrasting dyes
to provide visual separation within cell (e.g., Gram)
Cell wall staining to darken and define cell wall
Spore staining used to identify cytoplasmic
endospores (e.g., malachite green, with heating)
Inclusion staining used to visualize cellular
inclusions (e.g., polyphosphate)
Flagella staining to enhance visual image of flagella
Capsule staining to visually emphasize exocellular
layer of encapsulating polysaccharide material
Negative staining to create darkened background
which offers better visual contrast for cell or capsule
Figure 10-16. The Biolog Test; 95 test compounds and a
control well are included in each plate. The plate shown
was used to identify a Gram negative bacteria as
Leminorella grimontii based on comparing the pattern of
positive (dark) and negative tests to results in a
Figure 10-17. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) profiles
showing different patterns for a) Serratia marcescens and
b) Tsukamurella paurometabolum
Figure 10-18.
Denaturing Gradient Gel Extraction (DGGE) Track Profiles
Figure 10-19. Phylogenetic Tree Indicating
Evolutionary Branching and Distance between Groups
based on rRNA Analysis. Fungi are represented by
Coprinus (a mushroom), plants by Zea (corn), and
Animals by Homo (humans)
Figure 10-20.
Anabaena, a Filamentous Cyanobacteria; with Heterocyst
Figure 10-21.
Light Absorption Characteristics of Phototrophic Bacteria
Figure 10-22. Two Species of Beggiatoa in Samples
from RBC Wastewater Treatment Plants; a Gliding
Filamentous Sulfur Oxidizing Proteobacteria. Note
internally deposited sulfur granules
Figure 10-23. Sphaerotilus natans:
a) pure culture showing sheath and PHB granules; and
b) branching filament in activated sludge sample
Figure 10-24.
Characteristic Zoogloea ramigera floc from activated sludge
Figure 10-25.
Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli, Transmission Electron Micrograph
Transmission Electron Image of Escherichia Eubacteria
(Source: Revised from original TEM image photographed
at the Central Microscopy Research and Learning Facility,
University of Iowa, 85 EMRB Iowa City, IA 52242,
Web Site:
Figure 10-26. Desulfovibrio. Note the bent rods (vibrios).
Desulfovibrio sp. Sulfur-Reducing Eubacteria
Figure 10-27. Endospores in Bacillus
Bacillus sp. with Internal Spores
(Source: pg. 1021,
R.M. Atlas, Principles of Microbiology, 2nd Edition,
W.C. Brown Publishers, 1997)
Bacillus sp. Eubacteria with Internal Spore (~34,000x TEM Image)
(Source: pg. 1021,
R.M. Atlas, Principles of Microbiology, 2nd Edition,
W.C. Brown Publishers, 1997)
Figure 10-28. Nocardia-like Filamentous Bacteria in
Activated Sludge Foam (Gram stained preparation).
Figure 10-29. Spirochetes in Activated Sludge
Figure 10-30. Giardia
Figure 10-31. Bodo in Activated Sludge.
Figure 10-32. Amoeba in Activated Sludge.
Figure 10-33. Arcella, a Testate Amoeba
Figure 10-34. Free Swimming Ciliates:
a) Paramecium, b) Aspidisca, and c) Euplotes.
Figure 10-35. Vorticella, a Stalked Ciliate: a) feeding;
b) with mouth closed, and myoneme visible (dark line in
stalk); c) stalk extended, and d) seconds later, myoneme
contracted to form corkscrew-shaped stalk.
Figure 10-36. Podophyra, a Suctorean
Figure 10-37. Cryptosporidium
Figure 10-38. Euglena
Euglena sp. Euglenoid Algae
(Source: B. Leander, Center for Ultrastructural Research,
University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia,
Web Site:
Figure 10-39. SEM Images of Various Diatom Frustules.
SEM Images of Various Diatom Shell Structures
(Source: Central Microscopy Research and Learning Facility,
University of Iowa, 85 EMRB Iowa City, IA 52242,
Web Site:
Figure 10-40. Peridinium
Peridinium Dinoflagellate Algae
Ceratium sp. Dinoflagellate
(Source: pg. 550, L.M. Prescott, J.P. Harley, and D.A. Klein,
Microbiology, 4th Edition, WCB/McGraw-Hill, 1999)
Chlorella sp. Green Algae
Figure 10-41. Scenedesmus
Figure 13-30
Scenedesmus sp. Green Algae
Figure 10-42. Mold with Conidia
Mold with Budding Condidia Tip Structures
(Source: Central Microscopy Research and Learning Facility,
University of Iowa, 85 EMRB Iowa City, IA 52242,
Web Site:
Figure 10-43. Nematode trapping fungus.
Figure 10-44.
The Combined Effect of Mycorrhyzal Fungus and
Phosphate Fertilizer on Tomato Growth.
g dry weight of leaf
w/o fungus
mEq phosphate per plant
Figure 10-45. Virus Capsids