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Crime and Punishment Unit 1 Study Guide
White Collar: White-collar crimes are crimes that committed by people of high social status who
commit their crimes in the context of their occupation.
Blue Collar: used to describe crimes that are committed primarily by people who are from a lower social
Assault: An unlawful physical attack or threat of attack
Aggravated assault: An attack or attempted attack with a weapon
Burglary: Unlawful or forcible entry or attempted entry of a residence.
Embezzlement: The unlawful misappropriation of money or other things of value, by the person to
whom the property was entrusted
Identity theft: the stealing of someone’s identity
Larceny: The unlawful taking of property other than a motor vehicle
Organized Crime: Organized crime is crime committed by structured groups typically involving the
distribution of illegal goods and services to others.
Forgery: faking someone’s signature
Vehicular manslaughter: when you kill someone with a car or motor vehicle
First degree murder: premeditated murder, pre-planned
Second degree murder: heat of the moment, didn’t plan to kill them but you did
Manslaughter: accidental murder
Crime: a wrong against society
Society: is not static, it evolves
Consensus Model: assumes that as people gather together to form a society, its members will naturally
come to a basic agreement with regard to shared norms and values.
Conflict model: different segments – separated by social class, income, age, and race – are engaged in a
constant struggle with each other for control of society.
Deviance is a behavior that does not conform to the norms of a given community or society.
The purpose of Criminal Justice: To control crime; to prevent crime; to provide and maintain justice
Local Law Enforcement – split between counties and municipalities
State Law Enforcement – state police and highway patrol
Hawaii is the only state that does not have state law enforcement.
Federal Law Enforcement – FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations), Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), U.S.
Secret Service, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF), Department of Homeland Security
The U.S. has a dual court system, state court and federal court
Federal system includes district court, circuit courts of appeals, and the U.S. Supreme Court.
The prosecution – charged with trying the case on behalf of the state, trying to prove guilt.
The defense – hired or appointed, their job is to prove innocence.
Probation – most common, you remain under supervision of an agent of the court, or a probation officer
Beyond a Reasonable Doubt: The standard that must be met by the prosecution's evidence in a criminal