The Ingredient Process - Delmar

The Ingredient Process
Chapter 6
• Identify the various considerations
made when planning a menu
• Define standardized recipes
• Explain the purpose of product
• Illustrate the considerations made in
conducting quality analysis
Objectives (cont’d.)
• Summarize the ABC analysis method
• Describe how yield cost analyses are
• Evaluate the use of convenience foods,
and the concept of make-or-buy
• Explain the use of buyers’ blind tests
Planning the Menu
• Creating the menu is one of the first
activities to be completed
• Considerations for planning
– Target markets
– Consumer demand
– Required contribution margins
• Menu items must meet required profit margins
Planning the Menu (cont’d.)
• Considerations for planning (cont’d.)
– Available staffing and skills
– Seasonality and availability of foodstuffs
– Available equipment and facilities
– Preferences of chefs, owners, and
Market Research
• Methodically gathering data
– Can help owners and managers make
decisions about recipes
– Can be used for potential ingredients,
customers or suppliers
– If market research indicates a menu item
will not be popular or ingredients are
unavailable, it should be dropped
Recipe Development
• Chef or kitchen manager must meet
customer and profitability needs
• Other needs to consider when
developing recipes
– Cross-utilization of product due to limited
storage space
– Dishware or ingredient limitations
• Both raw and prepared foods used in
multiple fashions
– Helps reduce inventory
– Streamlines production
– Decreases overall procurement costs
Writing Standardized Recipes
• Measured use of tightly specified
ingredients prepared consistently
– Ensures regularity in cost, preparation,
appearance, taste, and yield
• Information in standardized recipes
– ID code, name, ingredients, weights and
measures, directions, yield, portion size,
and cost metrics
Identifying Product Needs
• After menu creation and recipes are
written, identify ingredients
– Determine possible cross-use in the menu
– Lay groundwork for writing ingredient
• Ingredients are categorized by product
The ABC Analysis
• Type of inventory analysis
– Designed to increase the number of turns
• Number of times in a week or month that a food
item is used up
– Goal: to minimize shelf inventory
• “A” items are most expensive or crucial
to business menu and concept
– Steakhouse example: a steak
The ABC Analysis (cont’d.)
• “B” items are mid-priced inventory items
– Steakhouse example: a baked potato
• “C” items are the cheapest
– Steakhouse example: a straw
• By actively managing “A” items, total
cost of purchases can be decreased
Product Evaluation and Selection
• Chefs and buyers must find best
available products
– To stay competitive
• Types of product analysis
– Quality analysis, value analysis, make-orbuy analysis, and yield cost analysis
Quality Analysis
• Ways to measure ingredient quality
– Nutrition and health value
– Freshness
– Appearance
– Aroma
– Taste and texture
– Consistency
Quality Analysis (cont’d.)
• Blind tests (can cuttings)
– Compare similar items from competing
– Labels removed
– Product should be from cans of similar size
– Evaluation methods include drained weight
tests; count and size test; and taste,
texture, and appearance test
Value Analysis
• Relationship between price and quality
– Once quality assessment has been
conducted, prices are taken into account to
determine relative value
Make-or-Buy Analysis
• Decision to make own products or
purchase from an outside source
• Consider sourcing of ingredients and in
what state of preparedness they are
– Convenience foods are pre-prepared
– Growth seen in every product category
Yield Cost Analysis
• Purpose is to determine the edible
portion cost (EPC)
– Depends on purchase price of ingredients
and edible yield (amount of usable product
available after processing)
– To calculate: divide as purchased cost
(APC) by the edible portion (EP) weight
Yield Cost Analysis (cont’d.)
• Butcher’s yield test
– Evaluates the cost of staff cutting their own
portions or buying the product preportioned
– Reveals three important cost
considerations: yield percentage, the EP
cost, and the cost factor multiplier
Writing Product Specifications
• Ensures quality standards are met
• Three forms of product specifications
– Internal
• Includes portion size, preparation, and
presentation directions
– External
• Clearly describe products to purveyors
Writing Product Specifications
• Three forms of product specifications
– General conditions
• Describes business considerations such as
delivery times and locations, billing instructions,
and related information
The Specification Form
• Information included on the form
– Generic product name
– Product specification reference guide code
– Brand name
– Supplier catalog code
– Intended use of product
– Packaging and market form
The Specification Form (cont’d.)
• Information (cont’d.)
– Size
– Acceptable trim
– Grade and color
– Place of origin
– Acceptable substitutes
– Price limitations
• Planning the menu precedes developing
the recipe
– Many factors involved in each
– Both may use market research to assist
• Cross-utilization of ingredients
decreases overall procurement costs
• ABC analysis used to manage inventory
Summary (cont’d.)
• Several types of product analysis exist
to help make decisions on ingredients
or suppliers
• Product specifications are important in
obtaining consistent ingredients
– Three types of specifications: internal,
external, and general conditions