Chapter 2 Brain and Behavior Vocab List

Chapter 2 The Brain and Behavior Vocabulary List – Part 1
Neurotransmitters – Specialized chemicals that facilitate or inhibit transmission of impulses from one
neuron to the next
Cell Body – The part of the neuron that contains the nucleus and carries out the metabolic functions of
the neuron
Dendrites -- The part of a neuron, the branch-like extensions of the cell body that receives signals from
other neurons
Axon – The slender, tail-like extension of the neuron that transmits signals to the dendrites or cell body
of other neurons and to muscles, glands, and other parts of the body
Axon Terminal – Bulbous end of the axon where signals move from the axon of one neuron to the
dendrites or cell body of another
Synapse – The junction where the axon terminal of a sending neuron communicates with a receiving
neuron across the synaptic cleft
Receptors – Protein molecules on the surfaces of dendrites and cell bodies that have distinctive shapes
and will interact only with specific neurotransmitters
Reuptake – The process by which neurotransmitters are taken from the synaptic cleft back into the axon
terminal for later use, thus terminating their excitatory or inhibitory effect on the receiving neuron.
Acetylcholine – Affects movement, learning, memory, REM sleep
Dopamine – Affects movement, attention, learning, reinforcement, pleasure
Norepinephrine – Affects eating, alertness, and wakefulness
Epinephrine – Affects metabolism of glucose, energy release during exercise
Serotonin – Affects mood, sleep, appetite, impulsivity, aggression
Glutamate – Active in areas of the brain involved in learning, thought, and emotion
GABA – Facilitates relief from pain and feelings of pleasure and well-being