US History Lesson Plan – Washington's War of Posts

‘War of Posts’
Three “theatres” of the war:
New York, New Jersey & Pennsylvania
Upper New York State
North & South Carolina & Virginia
The Battle of Brooklyn Heights
22 August 1776:
In the largest amphibious operation prior to the 20th
century, the British Navy transports 21,000 infantry across
the Verrazano Narrows and lands them at Gravesend Bay.
Objective - Brooklyn Heights - the high ground in New York.
Washington knows this and has 11,000 soldiers - the
majority of the Continental Army, to defend the Heights.
On August 27th, Americans fought British atop the Heights.
Out-flanked and outAt the same ti me, a
blowing down the
R iver
Br itish
ships fr om sailing up
Retreat Across the
East River - 29
August 1776
This allowed
Washington and his
army to retreat
across the river to
Manhattan under
cover of darkness on
the night of August
fought, the Continental
Army within a couple
hours, suffered 2700
casualties and been
pushed off the heights
towards Manhattan.
At the same time, a storm
came up, blowing down
the East River and
prevented British ships
from sailing up it.
Map of the Battle drawn by British General Staff
A dense fog rolled in,
which completely
obscured the action
on the waterfront.
The Continental
Army escaped across
the East River to
New York City.
Washington, the
was the last man to
cross the river.
Chased Across New Jersey
December 26th, Washington crossed the Delaware and surprised the British at Trenton.
The main surprise attack
was made by 2,400 troops
under Washington on the
The American victory was
the first of the war, and
helped to restore American
Challenges Howe at Brandywine
& Again at Germantown, PA
Colonials fought well, but lost these
battles, and the city of Philadelphia.
Burgoyne’s New York Campaign
Burgoyne convinced London to allow him
to try to split the Colonies and cut off New
England from help by the rest.
-Starts in Quebec.
- Moves via lakes & overland toward
Albany where Gen. Clinton would help.
- Outruns his supply lines
- Clinton never comes
- Gets bogged down in mud & woods.
Squashed at Saratoga
General Burgoyne Surrendering to General Gates at Saratoga
Importance of Saratoga
•It showed European that the rebels could defeat the
English on their own.
•France entered the war on the side of the patriots.
•Money and supplies flowed to the American cause,
•Washington's Continental Army with the support needed
to continue its fight against Great Britain.
Winter at Valley Forge
Awaiting expected French aid Colonial morale suffers
Cornwallis in the South
-Fought in New Jersey under Howe.
-Led the campaign in the South.
-Believed the loyalists in South would
help fight rebels.
-Chased rebel armies throughout North
and South Carolina. (Patriot)
-Ravaged the countryside seeking
supplies, and lost support of the locals.
-Moved into Virginia thinking he could
lessen resistance if VA was out of war.
- Surrendered at Yorktown.
Aid Comes to the Colonials
Taught Americans elementary
principles of maneuvering on
the battlefield.
Helped offset this fatal
disadvantage against their
well-trained enemy.
Friedrich von Steuben
Von Steuben drilling troops at Valley Forge
Marquis de Lafayette
• A French Noble and
soldier by age of 16
• In 1777, Lafayette took a
crew of adventurers to
America on his own ship.
• Fought & frustrated
Cornwallis in South.
• 1779 persuaded French
government to aid
French Arrive in Rhode Island
• 1780 – 6000 French land at Newport
• Another French Fleet harassed British in the West Indies
• Lafayette proposes they join up at Yorktown.
• October, 1781 – 17,000 French & Colonials surround
and defeat Cornwallis.
Victory at Yorktown
Treaty of Paris
John Adams
Benjamin Franklin
John Jay
Demand Full Independence
of England before any
negotiations even begin.
• Establish boundaries to the
Problems – English forts
remain in the West
A New Nation…Now What?
Republic or Democracy?
Republic – Good – Power to elected reps.
Democracy – Bad – Power to the uneducated
3 Problems
1) Representation by Population or by state
2) Supreme Power - States or National Government
3) Which states claim Western Lands?