Washington’s ‘War of Posts’ Three “theatres” of the war: New York, New Jersey & Pennsylvania Upper New York State North & South Carolina & Virginia The Battle of Brooklyn Heights 22 August 1776: In the largest amphibious operation prior to the 20th century, the British Navy transports 21,000 infantry across the Verrazano Narrows and lands them at Gravesend Bay. Objective - Brooklyn Heights - the high ground in New York. Washington knows this and has 11,000 soldiers - the majority of the Continental Army, to defend the Heights. On August 27th, Americans fought British atop the Heights. Out-flanked and outAt the same ti me, a storm came up, blowing down the East R iver and preventing Br itish ships fr om sailing up it. Retreat Across the East River - 29 August 1776 This allowed Washington and his army to retreat across the river to Manhattan under cover of darkness on the night of August 29th fought, the Continental Army within a couple hours, suffered 2700 casualties and been pushed off the heights towards Manhattan. At the same time, a storm came up, blowing down the East River and prevented British ships from sailing up it. Map of the Battle drawn by British General Staff A dense fog rolled in, which completely obscured the action on the waterfront. The Continental Army escaped across the East River to New York City. Washington, the commander-in-chief, was the last man to cross the river. Chased Across New Jersey December 26th, Washington crossed the Delaware and surprised the British at Trenton. The main surprise attack was made by 2,400 troops under Washington on the Hessians. The American victory was the first of the war, and helped to restore American morale. Challenges Howe at Brandywine & Again at Germantown, PA Colonials fought well, but lost these battles, and the city of Philadelphia. Burgoyne’s New York Campaign Burgoyne convinced London to allow him to try to split the Colonies and cut off New England from help by the rest. -Starts in Quebec. - Moves via lakes & overland toward Albany where Gen. Clinton would help. - Outruns his supply lines - Clinton never comes - Gets bogged down in mud & woods. Squashed at Saratoga General Burgoyne Surrendering to General Gates at Saratoga Importance of Saratoga •It showed European that the rebels could defeat the English on their own. •France entered the war on the side of the patriots. •Money and supplies flowed to the American cause, •Washington's Continental Army with the support needed to continue its fight against Great Britain. Winter at Valley Forge Awaiting expected French aid Colonial morale suffers Cornwallis in the South -Fought in New Jersey under Howe. -Led the campaign in the South. -Believed the loyalists in South would help fight rebels. -Chased rebel armies throughout North and South Carolina. (Patriot) -Ravaged the countryside seeking supplies, and lost support of the locals. -Moved into Virginia thinking he could lessen resistance if VA was out of war. - Surrendered at Yorktown. Aid Comes to the Colonials Taught Americans elementary principles of maneuvering on the battlefield. Helped offset this fatal disadvantage against their well-trained enemy. Friedrich von Steuben Von Steuben drilling troops at Valley Forge Marquis de Lafayette • A French Noble and soldier by age of 16 • In 1777, Lafayette took a crew of adventurers to America on his own ship. • Fought & frustrated Cornwallis in South. • 1779 persuaded French government to aid Americans. French Arrive in Rhode Island • 1780 – 6000 French land at Newport • Another French Fleet harassed British in the West Indies • Lafayette proposes they join up at Yorktown. • October, 1781 – 17,000 French & Colonials surround and defeat Cornwallis. Victory at Yorktown Treaty of Paris John Adams Benjamin Franklin John Jay Demand Full Independence of England before any negotiations even begin. • Establish boundaries to the Mississippi. Problems – English forts remain in the West A New Nation…Now What? Republic or Democracy? Republic – Good – Power to elected reps. Democracy – Bad – Power to the uneducated 3 Problems 1) Representation by Population or by state 2) Supreme Power - States or National Government 3) Which states claim Western Lands?